Idiotic Symbol

Freemasonry Enemy of Humankind


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The Liars all Togheter they are the ones who invented the Religious Lie of Christ The Antilogos
The Liars Get Together

The Roman Catholic Church is known to have always been against Freemasonry, even if many Roman Catholics, including priests and higher authorities, have been, and are, members of the Craft. Popes Clement XII in 1738 and Benedict XIV in 1751 issued Bulls against Freemasonry. The Roman Catholic Church has two main objections against the Craft: first, the solemn oath of secrecy and, second, that Freemasonry "tends to undermine belief in Catholic Christianity by substituting for it what is practically a rival religion based on deistic or naturalistic principles". Freemasonry, of course, proclaims not to be a religion at all, but a system of morality and philosophy. Moreover the Craft admits members of all religions as long as they proclaims to believe in the "Glorious Architect of heaven and earth". (THIS DECLARATION IS A LIE, THE CATHOLIC CHURCH AND FREEMANSORY ARE TOGETHER, THEY ARE ONE!!!) Read Who is The Antilogos clicking here.

Jerusalem - Symbolic Cradle of Freemasonry
Leon Zeldis, Freemason PS, 33° Grand Master
PSGC, Supreme Council of the Scottish Rite for the State of Israel
Honorary Adjunct Grand Master
Editor, The Israeli Freemason

  Jerusalem, City of David, King of Israel  -  Home of the Temple of Solomon, King of Israel
  "If I forget thee, O Jerusalem, let my right hand wither; let my tongue stick to my palate, ..."  (Psalms 137: 5-6)

Jerusalem, the "City of Peace," is the city of David, King of Israel, who, in the 10th century BCE, unified the Holy Land under his rule and established Jerusalem as his capital. His son, Solomon, King of Israel, built a Temple to the G-d of Israel which became the archetypal Temple in Western thought and a central subject in Masonic tradition. King Solomon's Temple already appears in the Old Charges of Operative Masons used by medieval Lodges and many legendary and ritual features of various Masonic degrees are related to its construction and architecture.

For both ‘J”ians and Jews, Jerusalem is the focal point of the world, the place where heaven and earth touch each other (Heavenly and Earthly Jerusalem). In the middle ages, some maps show Jerusalem as the center of the world, with Europe, Asia, and Africa radiating from it like the petals of a flower. Jerusalem is mentioned in the Old Testament no less than 656 times, in addition to other appelations such as "The Holy City," "The City of Truth," "The City of G-d," "The City of Peace," etc.

In 586 BCE, King Solomon's Temple was razed by Nebuchadnezzar. A second Temple was erected by Jews returning from the Babylonian exile in the 5th century BCE and was rebuilt and greatly enlarged by King Herod around the time of ‘J”. The Western Wall (formerly known as the "Wailing Wall") is a striking remnant of the Herodian temple. After the reunification of Jerusalem in 1967, the whole area has been opened up and now a large section of the wall has been exposed, part of which can be followed through underground passages. Some of the huge Herodian ashlars are among the largest construction stones in the world.

  The Master Course, Western Wall, Jerusalem, Israel
  Presumably the largest building stone in the world:
  ~12.5 × 4.5 × 3.5 m, ~370 ton (~41 × 15 × 11.5 ft, ~829,000 lb)

Beneath the wall encircling the Old City, there is a deep cavern known as King Solomon's Quarries. This was used in old times to quarry the characteristic yellow Jerusalem stone. In this cave took place, on May 13, 1868, the first recorded Masonic ceremony in the Holy Land. A group of Freemasons led by Robert Morris (Past Grand Master of Kentucky) held a meeting in the Secret Monitor Degree. At present, the cave is used to hold a Mark Master degree once or twice a year, usually conducted in English and attended by numerous Brethren from abroad.

The newly opened Museum of the History of Jerusalem, at King David's Tower, near the Old City's Jaffa Gate, gives a fascinating account of the city's 3000-year history. Other places in Israel with strong masonic connections, such as Jaffa (Joppa) and Acre (Templars), are within driving distance of Jerusalem.

  Tower of David, Jerusalem, Israel

There are eight Lodges working in Jerusalem, all of them under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of the State of Israel. Most work in Hebrew, but there is one working in English (Holy City Lodge #4). The Masonic Temple is located at 13 Ezrat Israel Street, off the main thoroughfare of the New City, Jaffa Road. Other attractions in Jerusalem include the Israel Museum, where the original Dead Sea Scrolls are in exhibition, among many fascinating archeological discoveries, some of them thousands of years old. The world-famous Yad Vashem memorial perpetuates the memory of the victims of the Holocaust. The recently-opened Bible Lands Museum explores the history, art, and architecture of the Holy Land throughout the ages.



Masonic International Dollar  


Masonic Seal on a One Dollar Bill


Or Asmon a fictitious “evil” demon statue that guarded the Solomon’s Temple that is praised by Freemasons.

Time of your mask to fall has come!

Masonic Dollar


 True History of the Hebrew Manuscript on the Origin of Freemasonry

True Document was found on FAKE ‘christian’ Freemasonic Website:

The Real Face of Freemasonry will be Shown Here.


  1                             2                            3



1.      History of the Hebrew Manuscript on the Origin of Freemasonry

1.      Introduction

2.      History of the Hebrew Manuscript

3.  Also Read Who is The ANTILOGOS? Antilogos was invented by the Freemasonic Roman Catholic Church and Pharisees of Middle East.    

                        4.PSEUDO NEW AGE "I AM MOVEMENT" AND ASCENDED MASTERS FULLY CREATED BY CRAZY                               FREEMASONRY!    

History of the Hebrew Manuscript on the Origin of Freemasonry

1. Introduction

·        It was generally believed that modern Freemasonry was created in 1717 when its Grand Lodge of England was established. It was also generally believed that it was Dr. James Anderson who wrote its "New Constitutions." (See, for instance, Paul A. Fisher, Behind the Lodge Door, Shield Publishing, Inc., P.O.Box 90181, Washington D.C.20090, p. 24). It is true that the new name was adopted in 1717, but the real founder of Freemasonry is not Anderson. Moreover, few people, including most of its members, know that its origin is 2000 years old. Indeed, as far as we know, none of the current books on Freemasonry traces Freemasonry to its true origin. Masonry was founded by King Herod Agrippa at the suggestion of Hiram Abiud, with the consent of Moab Levy, Adoniram, Johanan, Jacob Abdon, Antipas, Solomon Aberon, and Ashad Abia in the year 43. The original name was the "Mysterious Force." All its founders belonged to Judaism. In this article, we are going to present a true history based on the priceless manuscript written in Hebrew containing minutes of the meetings of the original founders of Masonry.

·        The following sections on Masonry are based on the English translation of the original manuscript written in Hebrew of the History of Masonry. The history was transmitted from the nine founders only to the direct descendants of these founders. One of the original Hebrew copies was passed from Moab Levy, a founder, to Joseph Levy in 17th century. However, Joseph Levy's copy was robbed by Desaguliers, the founder of modern Masonry, after Levy was assassinated by Desaguliers. Joseph's son Abraham Levy died of tuberculosis two years after his marriage to Esther. Esther remarried to Abraham Abiud who was a direct descendant of Hiram Abiud, the real founder of the ancient Masonic Association. Abraham Abiud possessed another copy of the original manuscript. Their only female child, also named Esther, was married to Samuel Lawrence. Their son Jonas Lawrence had a son Samuel by his first wife but later married Janet a Christian Protestant and converted to Christianity. This only manuscript was passed on to Jonas who expressed his desire to publish it. But Jonas was assassinated for his conversion to Christianity and his illegal possession of the History because he was not a direct descendant of the Levy line. Jonas's will could not be carried out until his great grandson, Lawrence G. S. Lawrence born 1868, who was a Protestant, translated the History from Hebrew into English. In this translation, Mr. Lawrence -- the last Descendant of the owner of the history (the Hebrew manuscript) -- adopted the title: The Dissipation of the Darkness, the Origin of Masonry. In the following sections, we will quote extensively from the English translation of the Hebrew manuscript and the pages that contain the quotes refer to this document.

2. History of the Hebrew Manuscript

·  These are the words of Lawrence G.S. Lawrence:

·        Thus it is that I, Lawrence, son of George, son of Samuel, son of Jonas, son of Samuel Lawrence, of Russian origin, the last descendant of the descendants of one of the owners of this History, say:

o       I inherited from my father a manuscript composed by our ancestors in the Hebrew language and translated by one of them to Russian language. Another of them translated it to English. (p. 18).

o       Our ancestor, Jonas, introduced in the manuscript a series of events; this History, thus, being produced by him and his ancestors. Jonas arranged it and divided it into two sections. He wanted to publish it, but various obstacles impeded it: health, economic means and political events. He and his wife, Janet, conceived the idea of the publication of this History; on finding themselves incapable of doing so, they commended its publication to their son, my grandfather, Samuel. Jonas died without seeing his longing fulfilled. (p. 18).

o       My grandfather, Samuel, the son of Jonas, who was the son of Samuel Lawrence, here addresses his words to his son, George, my father. Samuel said to his son, George:

§       Son: Here you see these introductions headed by a list of names. These names correspond to the successive heirs of this History since the renewal of the Association (The Mysterious Force) where it changed its name to "Freemasonry." They include: Joseph Levy. (p. 19)

§       Joseph Levy is one of the renewers of the association. He is a Jew and an heir of the History from his ancient ancestors who, in turn, inherited it from Moab Levy, one of the nine founders.

§       It was our ancestor, Joseph, who conceived the idea of changing the name of the association (The Mysterious Force) to Freemasonry and of reforming the statutes.

§       Here you have the details: He was sent to to London with his son, Abraham, and a friend named Abraham Abiud, all Jews, descendants of the heirs of the History and very well financed. They had made efforts to enter another city and, not having success, they headed for London. There they met two influential and knowledgeable persons who served as suitable elements to accomplish their purposes. They are:

§       John Desaguliers and a companion called George (last name unknown to manuscript owner). (p. 19)

§       After having strengthened the friendship among themselves, Joseph Levy revealed the name of the association, "The Mysterious Force," and related to his two friends, in synthesis and with discretion, some parts of the History, concealing its fundamental secrets. He also made it known to them that for a long time it was inactive, almost dead, needing for its renewal the change of name and the reform of the statutes in such a way that the new statutes and the changed name might attract many members. Thus it would grow. (p. 19)

§       With eloquence and cleverness, Joseph Levy succeeded in convincing his two friends, Desaguliers and George, of the necessity of reviving the association. Having achieved this initial success, they separated on condition that they would meet again, each one of them bringing three names appropriate for the new association, from which the specific name would come. The next meeting was held ten days later. Each one presented his names, the one approved being one of those proposed by Joseph Levy: FREEMASONRY. It was August 25, 1716. (p. 20)  - Surely George Payne.

o       Abraham, son of Joseph Levy, who had witnessed the two sessions, said:

§       This name had preference over the others for two reasons. First, because it is the same name that some Italian architects adopted in the 13th century (Freemasons). And second, because it was a suitable expression of the ancient signs and symbols used in the association, The Mysterious Force; symbols that pertained to construction and to architecture, proposed by Hiram Abiud, one of the founders, for the purpose of concealing the origin of the Association, attributing it to epochs prior to ‘J”. (p. 20)

o       Desaguliers approved the words of my father, adding:

§       "In the third place, present-day architects and builders have associations, syndicates and lodges where they gather to fortify and dignify their profession. With this name then, we can gather, all in a single association without anyone's knowing our purposes. And fourth, these two terms,' Masonry,' (construction) and 'Mason' are encountered since antiquity, will be a thick veil over the secret of the origin of the foundation; and, besides, without doubt, they will increase the prestige of the Association." (p. 20)

o       Our ancestor, Abraham Levy, before his death, added:

§       "Desaguliers specified that those people who joined the lodges before 1717 in London were masons, in the sense that they were engineers, architects, builders, apprentices, but they had no connection with the Association, The Mysterious Force, that began true Masonry." (p. 20)

§       For that purpose five men met: Levy, Desaguliers, and the companions mentioned above and they approved the addition of the term, "Free," thus unequivocally concealing the date of its foundation from the rest of the people in general and the members and associates in particular. (pp. 20-21)

§       John Desaguliers and his companion began to demand that Levy show him the History. Levy had made it known to them that it was translated into English, that three of the inherited manuscripts had been lost recently, four had been lost long ago, and there remained only his manuscript and one other ( Note: the other is the manuscript of Abraham Abiud. It is the one whose translation we have on hand). Such declarations excited Desaguliers and George extremely, the reason why they insisted on the need for a suitable copy so that with said copy it would be much easier for them to form the new statute. They showed themselves so faithful to the principles, desires and doctrines of Levy that they succeeded in convincing him to deliver a copy to them. It was delivered to them. A time passed during which they read it. (p. 21)

§       The five met again and decided to summon some friends on the pretext of establishing a "Unitive Association." The true purpose was the renewal of the Association, the Mysterious Force, its resurrection with the new name agreed upon by the five and the restoration of the first Principal Lodge (Jerusalem). Thus Levy wanted it. (p. 21)

§       On March 10, 1717 they invited several architects and acquaintances. The invited were presided over by a wise man named Dr. James Anderson, who was a friend of Desaguliers. After lengthy discussions they reached an accord and designated June 24, 1717, to realize a great meeting. (p. 21)

§       Meanwhile Levy was preparing his son, Abraham, for the great events of the future. Days later Abraham Levy journeyed to Portugal accompanied by Abraham Abiud, his relative. The latter is the descendant of Hiram Abiud, one of the founders, and owner of this copy. (p. 21-22)

§       Between March 10 and June 24 a great conflict was begun between Levy and Desaguliers and George because of their refusal to return the copy. In the June 24 meeting, the majority were on the side of Desaguliers and Anderson; as a result both conspired against Levy, assassinating and robbing his papers including the aforementioned English copy and the Hebrew copy. (p. 22)

o       On the June 24, 1717 meeting, they agreed on creating the Grand Lodge of England.

o       Here it is necessary to mention the names of the successive heirs of this History, from our ancestor, Joseph Levy, the renewer of the Association, down to me, Lawrence.

§       Joseph Levy was the son of Nathan, who was the son of Abraham, Abraham the son of Jacob, Jacob the son of Nathan, Nathan the son of Jacob, who was the son of Isaac, who was the son of Moab, Moab the son of Rafael, etc., etc. back to Moab Levy, the first ancestor and one of the Nine Founders of the Association, the Mysterious Force. (p. 22-23)

1.     Joseph Levy, Jew, 1665-1717

2.     Abraham, son of Joseph Levy, Jew, 1685 - 1718

3.     Nathan, son of Abraham Levy, Jew, 1717 - 1810

4.     Esther, daughter of Nathan Levy, Jew, 1753 - 1793

5.     Samuel Lawrence, her husband, Jew, 1742 - 1795

6.     Jonas (son of Samuel and Esther), converted to Christianity with the name of James, 1775 - 1825

7.     Janet, daughter of John Lincoln, Christian Protestant, 1785 - 1854

8.     Samuel, son of Jonas and Janet (Stepmother), Protestant ‘Christian ,1807 - 1883

9.     George, son of Samuel Lawrence, Protestant Christian, 1840 - 1884. (p. 23)

o       Desaguliers, born March 12, 1683 and died in the year 1742, was the only man who distinguished himself by his fervent zeal in the revitalization of the Association in the beginning of the 18th century. He merited the title of "Father of the New Masonry." The existence of the grand Lodge of England is due to his effort alone. (P. 41)

·        Notwithstanding the indication of the name of Anderson as the one who established the first edition of the fundamental statutes of the new Masonry, its forger and original observer was Desaguliers. If Anderson composed it, it was Desaguliers who believed it and dictated the fundamental themes and basic ideas. (p. 41)

Front and Back of a masonic apron
A typical Freemasonic Apron

Part 2: The Origin of Freemasonry


1.       The Origin of Freemasonry

1.      Masonry was founded by King Herod Agrippa with other eight Jewish Founders

2.      The original name of ancient Masonry was "The Mysterious Force"

3.      The frightful oath of founding members

4.      Meaning of instruments and symbols of Masonry

5.      The name was changed to Freemasonry on June 24, 1717 in London

The Origin of Freemasonry

1. Masonry was founded by King Herod Agrippa with other eight Jewish Founders

·        In the year AD43, King Herod Agrippa I summoned the court of Jerusalem and said:

o       "Dear Brothers, you are not the King's men and his collaborators. You are the support of the King and the life of the Jewish people. Until now you have been his faithful followers. From this moment on you will be his brothers . . .

o       "Let us all understand then, and let us not forget, that this fundamental meeting realized by this new group is based on Brotherhood . . .

o       "My Brothers, the aristocracy as well as the common people have perceived the spiritual and even political revolt that the appearance of the Impostor ‘J” (as in the original) has caused among the people, and especially among our Israelites.

o       "We have noted a great power in him, which he left as an inheritance to that group he called disciples. He founded an Association that he called a religion, it being called that by them as well. This supposed religion is at a point of overturning the foundations of our religion and demolishing it . . .

o       "He attributed to himself the gift of prophecy and the power of performing miracles. He claimed to be the hoped-for Messiah of whom our prophets announced the coming; not being anything but a vulgar man like the rest of the people, devoid of any feature of the Divine Spirit, withdrawn to the extreme from the rectitude of our firm Jewish doctrine, from which we are determined not to deviate in even one point.

o       "Never will we recognize such a person as the Messiah, nor will we recognize his divinity. We know that the hoped-for Messiah is not yet among us, nor has the time of his coming arrived. Nor has any sign been exhibited that might indicate his appearance. If we commit the error of letting our people follow him and be deceived, we convict ourselves of an unforgivable crime.

o       "...We crucified him, he died and we buried him, leaving guards who watched the tomb. But it was claimed that he was risen, resurrected!... He disappeared in an unknown manner, in spite of the zealous vigilance and the security of the closure . . .

o       "His leaving the tomb, my friends, was a decisive blow for his rivals; it was a powerful means that encourages his men to continue spreading his teachings and to prove the confirmation of his divinity . . .

o       "We will not recognize, on any point, a religion other than ours, the Jewish religion that we have inherited from our ancestors. Duty calls us to preserve it until the end time.

o       "That blow had never been expected. That mysterious force had never been dreamed of. Our fathers attacked it and we continue attacking it. In spite of everything, astonishing! Their number increases. Observe with me how the son is separated from the father, the brother from his brother, the daughter from her mother, all alienating themselves to join that group. This affair encloses a great secret. How many men, how many women, how many entire families have abandoned the Jewish religion in order to follow those impostors, those partisans of ‘J”. How many times they were threatened by the priests and authorities, in vain!" (The Dissipation of the Darkness, the Origin of Masonry, pp. 45-47).

2. The original name of ancient Masonry was "The Mysterious Force"

Masonic Apron

Another Masonic Apron

·  Hiram Abiud, the King's Counselor, who was the real founder of ancient Masonry, proposed the name of the association as the "Mysterious Force." This was his reason:

·        "...It seems that there has been a hand, a force, secret, mysterious, that punishes us without our being able to offer resistance. It seems we have lost all our strength to defend our religion and our existence itself.

·        "Majesty, based on the evidence that there is no efficacious means of incorporating our ideas, nor firm hope of attacking that force, undoubtedly mysterious; there is no other oath than to establish a Mysterious force, similar to that one (to attack mystery with mystery) (Editor's Note: phrase in brackets is in the original). I have come to the conclusion that it is our unavoidable duty, unless you have a better idea to establish an Association of greater power so it may assemble the Jewish forces threatened by that mysterious force. It is fitting that no one knows anything about this foundation, its principles and its actions. Only those whom Your Majesty may choose as founders will know the secret of the foundation." (p. 43).

3. The frightful oath of founding members

Apprentice fool patsy of freemasonry
A Foolish Apprentice being initiated in First Degree

The nine founders had to take a horrifying oath :

o       "I, (John Doe, son of John Doe), swear by God, the Bible and my honor, that, having become a member of nine founders of the Association, 'The Mysterious force', I bind myself not to betray my brothers, the members in anything that might harm their persons, nor to betray anything concerning the decrees of the Association. I bind myself to follow its principles and to realize what is proposed in the successive decrees approved by you, the nine founders, with obedience and precision, with zeal and fidelity. I bind myself to work for an increase in the number of its members. I bind myself to attack whoever follows the teaching of the Impostor ‘J” and to combat his men until death. I bind myself not to divulge any of the secrets preserved among us, the nine; either among outsiders or among the affiliated members.

o       "If I commit perjury and my betrayal is confirmed in that I have revealed some secret or some article of the decrees preserved among and our heirs this commission of eight companions will have the right to kill me by whatever means available." (pp. 51-52).

4. Meaning of instruments and symbols of Masonry

freemason bullshit masonic bullshit

King Agrippa explained the meaning of instruments and symbols used in Masonry:

o       "You already know that we must make everyone believe that our Association is very ancient... We will reinforce this deceit with the use of the instruments of construction that the architect Hiram utilized in the construction (of the Solomon Temple), such as the Square, the Compass, the Trowel, the Scales, the Hammer, etc., all of wood as Hiram Abiff had them." (p. 62).

o       "...Every session will be opened by striking three times consecutively with this hammer; thus we will remember eternally through centuries, that we have crucified him and with this hammer we have fixed the nails in his hands and feet, killing him. These three stars you see symbolize the three nails. Within this "great sign" are the three stars of David, telling the Jewish people that he is continuing the work of the 9 Masonic founders.

o        "Within our Association, we will make degrees, as we have mentioned previously. These will be thirty-three, symbolizing the age of the impostor. We will give a name to each degree and we will create other similar symbols. All these things were my ideas and those of brothers Moab and Hiram. The meaning of these ironic symbols must not be perceived; it must remain among the nine of us. For the other brothers or affiliates it is enough to make them see the utilities and instruments so they may believe that the Association was founded in the times of Solomon or earlier than this." (p.64).

o       "Any brother can propose a new symbol."

o       "What do you think and observe, brothers, concerning what I have presented to you?"

o       The six men approved without objection, everything being recorded. (Note from the Original Manuscript: 6 men and the three proposers: the King, Moab, and Hiram).

o       Then the King said: "Let us rejoice! Let us begin the march on the path of triumph! Let us take our first three steps! Let us strike three times with this victorious hammer, with the symbol of death for our enemy the Impostor, the symbol of the establishment of our honorable principles that we fix with the nails of brotherhood and union! Let us all exclaim with joy: Onward to victory!" (p. 64)

o       During the First Session, the nine founders also created a new symbol: the apron that symbolized the protection of the clothing from the mud. This together with the Masonic instruments are to conceal the true purpose and to assure the affiliates of the antiquity of the Association. (p. 64).

o       The King-President said: "I, with my authority as President (and not as King) grant each one of you the 33rd degree, the highest in our Association. . . . Since our brother Hiram is orphaned of his father since childhood, knowing no one other than his widowed mother, I propose to call our Association, "The Widow," asking your approval. From now on the name of the founders will be "The Sons of the Widow." Each member of the Association will call himself a son of the widow until the end of time because we believe that our Association will live until the end of time." (p. 65)

o       (Note: King Agrippa became blind within five days of the illness of the eyes, then paralyzed, and died shortly afterward in the year 44. Acts of the Apostles (12:23) reported that the King was struck by an angel and eaten by worms before he died. Hiram Abiud replaced The King as president of the Association but disappeared mysteriously and his
body was found eaten by vultures. Desaguliers became mad and died in extreme poverty)

5. The name was changed to Freemasonry on June 24, 1717 in London

·     Masonry set up the Temple of Jerusalem and sent heir-descendant of Hiram Abiud to Rome to establish the two Temples of Rome and of Achaea. After the members of the latter two temples killed St. Peter and St. Andrew, the Temple of Rome became the presider of all temples in the East. The heir-descendant of Moab Levy was sent to Russia, that of Adoniram to Gaul (France) and those of the successor of Abiud to Germany. The movement initiated by the Mysterious Force did not expand greatly due to the fear created by its name. Joseph Levy and Abraham Abiud, heir-descendants of Moab Levy and Hiram Abiud, were sent from Russia and Germany to London where they met John Desaguliers, who was a Protestant with intense hatred for Catholics. The three agreed on naming the Association Freemasonry on August 25, 1716. Then on June 24, 1717, they met with the associations of architects and builders in London and officially launched the Association with the new name. Since 1717, the temples were changed to lodges.

 Masonic TRASH! Masonic Garbage!


The following is a list of Masons reprinted with some updates from the Bulletin de l'Occident Chrétien Nr.12, July, 1976, (Directeur Pierre Fautrad a Fye - 72490 Bourg Le Roi.) Each man's name is followed by his position, if known; the date he was initiated into Masonry, his code #; and his code name, if known.
  1. Albondi, Alberto. Bishop of Livorno, (Leghorn). Initiated 8-5-58; I.D. # 7-2431.
  2. Abrech, Pio. In the Sacred Congregation of Bishops. 11-27-67; # 63-143.
  3. Acquaviva, Sabino. Professor of Religion at the University of Padova, (Padua). 12-3-69; # 275-69.
  4. Alessandro, Father Gottardi. (Addressed as Doctor in Masonic meetings.) President of Fratelli Maristi. 6-14-59.
  5. Angelini Fiorenzo. Bishop of Messenel Greece. 10-14-57; # 14-005.
  6. Argentieri, Benedetto. Patriarch to the Holy See. 3-11-70; # 298-A.
  7. Bea, Augustin. Cardinal. Secretary of State (next to Pope) under Pope John XXIII and Pope Paul VI.
  8. Baggio, Sebastiano. Cardinal. Prefect of the Sacred Congregation of Bishops. (This is a crucial Congregation since it appoints new Bishops.) Secretary of State under Pope John Paul II from 1989 to 1992. 8-14-57; # 85-1640. Masonic code name "SEBA." He controls consecration of Bishops.
  9. Balboni, Dante. Assistant to the Vatican Pontifical . Commission for Biblical Studies. 7-23-68; # 79-14 "BALDA."
  10. Baldassarri Salvatore. Bishop of Ravenna, Italy. 2-19-58; # 4315-19. "BALSA."
  11. Balducci, Ernesto. Religious sculpture artist. 5-16-66; # 1452-3.
  12. Basadonna, Ernesto. Prelate of Milan, 9-14-63; # 9-243. "BASE."
  13. Batelli, Guilio. Lay member of many scientific academies. 8-24-59; # 29-A. "GIBA."
  14. Bedeschi, Lorenzo. 2-19-59; # 24-041. "BELO."
  15. Belloli, Luigi. Rector of Seminar; Lombardy, Ita- ly. 4-6-58; # 22-04. "BELLU."
  16. Belluchi, Cleto. Coadjutor Bishop of Fermo, Italy. 6-4-68; # 12-217.
  17. Bettazzi, Luigi. Bishop of Ivera, Italy. 5-11-66; # 1347-45. "LUBE."
  18. Bianchi, Ciovanni. 10-23-69; # 2215-11. "BIGI."
  19. Biffi, Franco, Msgr. Rector of Church of St. John Lateran Pontifical University. He is head of this University and controls what is being taught. He heard confessions of Pope Paul VI. 8-15-59. "BIFRA."
  20. Bicarella, Mario. Prelate of Vicenza, Italy. 9-23-64; # 21-014. "BIMA."
  21. Bonicelli, Gaetano. Bishop of Albano, Italy. 5-12-59; # 63-1428, "BOGA."
  22. Boretti, Giancarlo. 3-21-65; # 0-241. "BORGI."
  23. Bovone, Alberto. Substitute Secretary of the Sacred Office. 3-30-67; # 254-3. "ALBO."
  24. Brini, Mario. Archbishop. Secretary of Chinese, Oriental, and Pagans. Member of Pontifical Commission to Russia. Has control of rewriting Canon Law. 7-7-68; # 15670. "MABRI."
  25. Bugnini, Annibale. Archbishop.Wrote Novus Ordo Mass. Envoy to Iran, 4-23-63; # 1365-75. "BUAN."
  26. Buro, Michele. Bishop. Prelate of Pontifical Commission to Latin America, 3-21-69; # 140-2. "BUMI."
  27. Cacciavillan, Agostino. Secretariat of State. 11-6-60; # 13-154.
  28. Cameli, Umberto. Director in Office of the Ecclesiastical Affairs of Italy in regard to education in Catholic doctrine. 11-17-60; # 9-1436.
  29. Caprile, Giovanni. Director of Catholic Civil Affairs. 9-5-57; # 21-014. "GICA."
  30. Caputo, Giuseppe. 11-15-71; # 6125-63. "GICAP."
  31. Casaroli, Agostino. Cardinal. Secretary of State (next to Pope) under Pope John Paul II since July 1, 1979 until retired in 1989. 9-28-57; # 41-076. "CASA."
  32. Cerruti, Flaminio. Chief of the Office of the University of Congregation Studies. 4-2-60; # 76-2154. "CEFLA."
  33. Ciarrocchi, Mario. Bishop. 8-23-62; # 123-A. "CIMA."
  34. Chiavacci, Enrico. Professor of Moral Theology, University of Florence, Italy. 7-2-70; # 121-34. "CHIE."
  35. Conte, Carmelo. 9-16-67; # 43-096. "CONCA."
  36. Csele, Alessandro. 3-25-60; # 1354-09. "ALCSE."
  37. Dadagio, Luigi. Papal Nuncio to Spain. Archbishop of Lero. 9-8-67. # 43-B. "LUDA."
  38. D'Antonio, Enzio. Archbishop of Trivento. 6-21-69; # 214-53.
  39. De Bous, Donate. Bishop. 6-24-68; # 321-02. "DEBO."
  40. Del Gallo Reoccagiovane, Luigi. Bishop.
  41. Del Monte, Aldo. Bishop of Novara, Italy. 8-25-69; # 32-012. "ADELMO."
  42. Faltin, Danielle. 6-4-70; # 9-1207. "FADA."
  43. Ferraioli, Giuseppe. Member of Sacred Congregation for Public Affairs. 11-24-69; # 004-125. "GIFE."
  44. Franzoni, Giovanni. 3-2-65; # 2246-47. "FRAGI."
  45. Gemmiti, Vito. Sacred Congregation of Bishops. 3-25-68; # 54-13. "VIGE."
  46. Girardi, Giulio. 9-8-70; # 1471-52. "GIG."
  47. Fiorenzo, Angelinin. Bishop. Title of Commendator of the Holy Spirit. Vicar General of Roman Hospitals. Controls hospital trust funds. Consecrated Bishop 7-19-56; joined Masons 10-14-57.
  48. Giustetti, Massimo. 4-12-70; # 13-065. "GIUMA."
  49. Gottardi, Alessandro. Procurator and Postulator General of Fratelli Maristi. Archbishop of Trent. 6-13-59; # 2437-14. "ALGO."
  50. Gozzini, Mario. 5-14-70; # 31-11. "MAGO."
  51. Grazinai, Carlo. Rector of the Vatican Minor Seminary. 7-23-61; # 156-3. "GRACA."
  52. Gregagnin, Antonio. Tribune of First Causes for Beatification. 10-19-67; # 8-45. "GREA."
  53. Gualdrini, Franco. Rector of Capranica. 5-22-61; # 21-352. "GUFRA."
  54. Ilari, Annibale. Abbot. 3-16-69; # 43-86. "ILA."
  55. Laghi, Pio. Nunzio, Apostolic Delegate to Argentina, and then to U.S.A. until 1995. 8-24-69; # 0-538. "LAPI."
  56. Lajolo, Giovanni. Member of Council of Public Affairs of the Church. 7-27-70; # 21-1397. "LAGI."
  57. Lanzoni, Angelo. Chief of the Office of Secretary of State. 9-24-56; # 6-324. "LANA."
  58. Levi, Virgillio (alias Levine), Monsignor. Assistant Director of Official Vatican Newspaper, L'Osservatore Romano. Manages Vatican Radio Station. 7-4-58; # 241-3. "VILE."
  59. Lozza, Lino. Chancellor of Rome Academy of St. Thomas Aquinas of Catholic Religion. 7-23-69; # 12-768. "LOLI."
  60. Lienart, Achille. Cardinal. Grand Master top Mason. Bishop of Lille, France. Recruits Masons. Was leader of progressive forces at Vatican II Council.
  61. Macchi, Pasquale. Cardinal. Pope Paul's Prelate of Honour and Private Secretary until he was excommunicated for heresy by Pope Paul VI. Was reinstated by Secretary of State Jean Villot, and made a Cardinal. 4-23-58; # 5463-2. "MAPA."
  62. Mancini, Italo. Director of Sua Santita. 3-18-68; # l551-142. "MANI."
  63. Manfrini, Enrico. Lay Consultor of Pontifical Commission of Sacred Art. 2-21-68; # 968-c. "MANE."
  64. Marchisano, Francesco. Prelate Honour of the Pope. Secretary Congregation for Seminaries and Universities of Studies. 2-4-61; 4536-3. "FRAMA."
  65. Marcinkus, Paul. American bodyguard for imposter Pope. From Cicero, Illinois. Stands 6'4". President for Institute for Training Religious. 8-21-67; # 43-649. Called "GORILLA." Code name "MARPA."
  66. Marsili, Saltvatore. Abbot of Order of St. Benedict of Finalpia near Modena, Italy. 7-2-63; # 1278-49. "SALMA."
  67. Mazza, Antonio. Titular Bishop of Velia. Secretary General of Holy Year, 1975. 4-14-71. # 054-329. "MANU."
  68. Mazzi, Venerio. Member of Council of Public Affairs of the Church. 10-13-66; # 052-s. "MAVE."
  69. Mazzoni, Pier Luigi. Congregation of Bishops. 9-14-59; # 59-2. "PILUM."
  70. Maverna, Luigi. Bishop of Chiavari, Genoa, Italy. Assistant General of Italian Catholic Azione. 6-3-68; # 441-c. "LUMA."
  71. Mensa, Albino. Archbishop of Vercelli, Piedmont, Italy. 7-23-59; # 53-23. " MENA."
  72. Messina, Carlo. 3-21-70; # 21-045. "MECA."
  73. Messina, Zanon (Adele). 9-25-68; # 045-329. " AMEZ."
  74. Monduzzi, Dino. Regent to the Prefect of the Pontifical House. 3-11 -67; # 190-2. "MONDI."
  75. Mongillo, Daimazio. Professor of Dominican Moral Theology, Holy Angels Institute of Roma. 2-16-69; # 2145-22. "MONDA."
  76. Morgante, Marcello. Bishop of Ascoli Piceno in East Italy. 7-22-55; # 78-3601. MORMA."
  77. Natalini, Teuzo. Vice President of the Archives of Secretariat of the Vatican. 6-17-67; # 21-44d. "NATE."
  78. Nigro, Carmelo. Rector of the Seminary, Pontifical of Major Studies. 12-21-70; # 23-154. "CARNI."
  79. Noe, Virgillio. Head of the Sacred Congregation of Divine Worship. He and Bugnini paid 5 Protestant Ministers and one Jewish Rabbi to create the Novus Ordo Mass. 4-3-61; # 43652-21. "VINO."
  80. Palestra, Vittorie. He is Legal Council of the Sacred Rota of the Vatican State. 5-6-43; # 1965. "PAVI."
  81. Pappalardo, Salvatore. Cardinal. Archbishop of Palermo, Sicily. 4-15-68; # 234-07. "SALPA."
  82. Pasqualetti, Gottardo. 6-15-60; # 4-231. "COPA."
  83. Pasquinelli, Dante. Council of Nunzio of Madrid. 1-12-69; # 32-124. "PADA."
  84. Pellegrino, Michele. Cardinal. Called "Protector of the Church", Archbishop of Torino (Turin, where the Holy Shroud of Jesus is kept). 5-2-60; # 352-36. "PALMI."
  85. Piana, Giannino. 9-2-70; # 314-52. "GIPI."
  86. Pimpo, Mario. Vicar of Office of General Affairs. 3-15-70; # 793-43. "PIMA."
  87. Pinto, Monsignor Pio Vito. Attaché of Secretary of State and Notare of Second Section of Supreme Tribunal and of Apostolic Signature. 4-2-70; # 3317-42. "PIPIVI."
  88. Poletti, Ugo. Cardinal. Vicar of S.S. Diocese of Rome. Controls clergy of Rome since 3-6-73. Member of Sacred Congregation of Sacraments and of Divine Worship. He is President of Pontifical Works and Preservation of the Faith. Also President of the Liturgical Academy. 2-17-69; # 32-1425. "UPO."
  89. Rizzi, Monsignor Mario. Sacred Congregation of Oriental Rites. Listed as "Prelate Bishop of Honour of the Holy Father, the Pope." Works under top-Mason Mario Brini in manipulating Canon Law. 9-16-69; # 43-179. "MARI," "MONMARI."
  90. Romita, Florenzo. Was in Sacred Congregation of Clergy. 4-21-56; # 52-142. "FIRO."
  91. Rogger, Igine. Officer in S.S. (Diocese of Rome). 4-16-68; # 319-13. "IGRO."
  92. Rossano, Pietro. Sacred Congregation of Non-Christian Religions. 2-12-68; # 3421-a. "PIRO."
  93. Rovela, Virgillio. 6-12-64; # 32-14. "ROVI."
  94. Sabbatani, Aurelio. Archbishop of Giustiniana (Giusgno, Milar Province, Italy). First Secretary Supreme Apostolic Segnatura. 6-22-69; # 87-43. "ASA"
  95. Sacchetti, Guilio. Delegate of Governors - Marchese. 8-23-59; # 0991-b. "SAGI."
  96. Salerno, Francesco. Bishop. Prefect Atti. Eccles. 5-4-62; # 0437-1. "SAFRA"
  97. Santangelo, Franceso. Substitute General of Defense Legal Counsel. 11-12-70; # 32-096. "FRASA."
  98. Santini, Pietro. Vice Official of the Vicar. 8-23-64; # 326-11. "SAPI."
  99. Savorelli, Fernando. 1-14-69; # 004-51. "SAFE."
  100. Savorelli, Renzo. 6-12-65; # 34-692. "RESA."
  101. Scanagatta, Gaetano. Sacred Congregation of the Clergy. Member of Commission of Pomei and Loreto, Italy. 9-23-71; # 42-023. "GASCA."
  102. Schasching, Giovanni. 3-18-65; # 6374-23. "GISCHA," "GESUITA."
  103. Schierano, Mario. Titular Bishop of Acrida (Acri in Cosenza Province, Italy.) Chief Military Chaplain of the Italian Armed Forces. 7-3-59; #14-3641. "MASCHI."
  104. Semproni, Domenico. Tribunal of the Vicarate of the Vatican. 4-16-60; # 00-12. "DOSE."
  105. Sensi, Giuseppe Mario. Titular Archbishop of Sardi (Asia Minor near Smyrna). Papal Nunzio to Portugal. 11-2-67; # 18911-47. "GIMASE."
  106. Sposito, Luigi. Pontifical Commission for the Archives of the Church in Italy. Head Administrator of the Apostolic Seat of the Vatican.
  107. Suenens, Leo. Cardinal. Title: Protector of the Church of St. Peter in Chains, outside Rome. Promotes Protestant Pentecostalism (Charismatics). Destroyed much Church dogma when he worked in 3 Sacred Congregations: 1) Propagation of the Faith; 2) Rites and Ceremonies in the Liturgy; 3) Seminaries. 6-15-67; # 21-64. "LESU."
  108. Trabalzini, Dino. Bishop of Rieti (Reate, Peruga, Italy). Auxiliary Bishop of Southern Rome. 2-6-65; # 61-956. "TRADI."
  109. Travia, Antonio. Titular Archbishop of Termini Imerese. Head of Catholic schools. 9-15-67; # 16-141. "ATRA."
  110. Trocchi, Vittorio. Secretary for Catholic Laity in Consistory of the Vatican State Consultations. 7-12-62; # 3-896. "TROVI."
  111. Tucci, Roberto. Director General of Vatican Radio. 6-21-57; # 42-58. "TURO."
  112. Turoldo, David. 6-9-67; # 191-44. "DATU."
  113. Vale, Georgio. Priest. Official of Rome Diocese. 2-21-71; # 21-328. "VAGI."
  114. Vergari, Piero. Head Protocol Officer of the Vatican Office Segnatura. 12-14-70; # 3241-6. "PIVE."
  115. Villot, Jean. Cardinal. Secretary of State during Pope Paul VI. He is Camerlengo (Treasurer). "JEANNI," "ZURIGO."
  116. Zanini, Lino. Titular Archbishop of Adrianopoli, which is Andrianopolis, Turkey. Apostolic Nuncio. Member of the Revered Fabric of St. Peter's Basilica.
  1. Fregi, Francesco Egisto. 2-14-63; # 1435-87.
  2. Tirelli, Sotiro. 5-16-63; # 1257-9. "TIRSO."
  3. Cresti, Osvaldo. 5-22-63; # 1653-6. "CRESO."
  4. Rotardi, Tito. 8-13-63; # 1865-34. "TROTA."
  5. Orbasi, Igino. 9-17-73; # 1326-97. "ORBI."
  6. Drusilla, Italia. 10-12-63; # 1653-2. "'DRUSI "
  7. Ratosi, Tito. 11-22-63; # 1542-74 "TRATO."
  8. Crosta, Sante. 11-17-63; # 1254-65. "CROSTAS.

John Theophilus Desaguliers 

Grand Master, United Grand Lodge of England

The Rev. John Theophilus Desaguliers LL.D., F.R.S. was born in Rochelle, France. The son of a Huguenot clergyman, Desaguliers was educated at ‘J” Church, Oxford. His reputation as a lecturer on experimental philosophy obtained for him a Fellowship in the English Royal Society. He was the inventor of the planetarium.

Elected the third Grand Master of England in 1719, Desaguliers was a zealous collector of early masonic manuscripts. Although attributed to Dr. James Anderson, the General Regulations found in the first edition of the Constitutions were compiled under his supervision.

 Grand Master, 1719

Deputy Grand Master, 1723

Deputy Grand Master, 1725

Grand Lodge of England 


Source: Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, Albert Mackey. p. 276-7.  

March 12, 1683 - February 29, 1744

The Rev. John Theophilus Desaguliers LL.D., F.R.S. was born in Rochelle, France. The son of a Huguenot clergyman, Desaguliers was educated at Christ Church, Oxford. His reputation as a lecturer on experimental philosophy obtained for him a Fellowship in the English Royal Society. He was the inventor of the planetarium.

Elected the third Grand Master of England in 1719, Desaguliers was a zealous collector of early masonic manuscripts. Although attributed to Dr. James Anderson, the General Regulations found in the first edition of the Constitutions were compiled under his supervision.

Grand Master, 1719
Deputy Grand Master, 1723
Deputy Grand Master, 1725
Grand Lodge of England

Source: Encyclopedia of Freemasonry, Albert Mackey. p. 276-7.  

 John Theophilus Desaguliers

Grand Master, United Grand Lodge of England

Desaguliers was born March 12th, 1683, in the city of Rochelle in France. His father was a French Protestant (Huguenot) clergyman. Two years later Louis XIV revoked the Edict of Nantes, which had for nearly a century assured religious liberty and legal status to French Protestants. As a result of the revocation, thousands of loyal French were driven into exile. (The families of Revere, Bowdoin, and Faneuil settled in Boston). Among those who were forced to flee was the Huguenot clergyman, John D Desaguliers. Escape was difficult and dangerous, and Desaguliers had to hide his two year old son, John Theophilus, in a wine cask which was loaded on a ship bound for England.

The Rev John D Desaguliers became chaplain of a French Huguenot church in London and there guided the training of his son in classical languages At this time, Latin was an important scientific language. Later, with the assistance of his son, then only in his teens, he founded a school at Islington (London).

After the death of his father, John Theophilus Desaguliers decided to finish his studies at Oxford, where he Experimental Philosophy, or Science. He then became Professor of Experimental Philosophy at Christ's College.

In 1713 he left Oxford for London, taking spacious apartments and gave scientific lectures in them. The people of London crowded his quarters, and it became fashionable to see Dr Desaguliers' lectures. The greatest noblemen of his time honored his courses with their attendance and him with their friendship. He became one of the most celebrated people in London. Previously natural philosophers had talked only to their fellows or to students at the universities. In this radical change, the scientific thinkers of the day began to discuss their ideas with educated amateurs. They were a kind of rational entertainment, part of a wider 'polite' culture, and were not a requirement for any trade or profession. Desaguliers was invited to give many lectures to the new king, George I and his family. The enthusiasm of the royal family for natural philosophy was important for two reasons: natural philosophers needed patrons, and the tastes of the royal family influenced the fashions of the day.

Dr Desaguliers became Curator of Experiments at the highly influential Royal Society (founded 1660), and was elected as a Fellow (FRS). He helped to standardize the courses by publishing a syllabus, and the text of his lectures. There he met many prominent scientists of the day, including Sir Isaac Newton. He later translated Newton's Principia into English (it was written in Latin), patented some scientific inventions, and invented the planetarium. As an early investigator into electricity he coined the terms 'insulator' and 'conductor' (Later, Ben Franklin coined even more!). He went on to write many treatises and books on Natural Philosophy, which did much to disseminate knowledge, and perhaps more importantly to popularize the spirit of inquiry, as a significant part of The Enlightenment. This put him in good stead to radically change the course of Freemasonry.

See one of Desaguliers' patents CLICK

On June 24th, 1717 the United Grand Lodge of England was formed by the combination of four influential lodges. Desaguliers became its third Grand Master in 1719, giving him an unparalleled opportunity to influence Freemasonry.

Desaguliers was a man of liberal thought who did not want Masonic membership restricted only to Christians. It is probable that the required 'belief in a single God' requirement was a compromise between the conservatives and the freethinkers. Desaguliers was no stranger to religious bigotry, since his family had to flee France upon the repeal of the Edict of Nantes. He took a liberal standpoint from that of the Church of England establishment, which was not originally in favor of Freemasonry. Masons in later Revolutionary France went one step further and discarded the 'belief in a single God' requirement, thus causing a rift between the Grand Orient and the UGLE.

There is no question that Desaguliers had an extraordinary influence upon the early years of the formation of modern Freemasonry. We know he visited Europe, and encouraged the formation of Freemasonry there. In 1731, Francis, Duke of Lorraine (later Emperor Francis I of the Holy Roman Empire), and husband of Maria Theresa of Austria, was initiated as an Entered Apprentice and passed to the degree of Fellow Craft in a Lodge held at the house of the British Ambassador at The Hague. Dr Desaguliers was among those present.

In 1721 the Scots clergyman James Anderson was given the task of compiling a book about the codes and regulations of Freemasonry. In that year Lodges from outside London began to join the London Grand Lodge. With the help of Desaguliers and George Payne, Anderson published in 1723 The Constitutions of the Freemasons… being the History, Charges and Regulations… This book was a definitive statement of the Constitution for Freemasonry, derived from a compilation of the old manuscripts of Constitutions of existing Freemasons' Lodges.

The noted Scots Masonic historian Murray Lyon (died 1903), described Desaguliers as the "co-fabricator and pioneer of the system of symbolical masonry." Certainly Desaguliers was just about the most influential Mason of the period, serving as Grand Master in 1719, and Deputy Grand Master in 1722 and 1726. This was the period in which the third degree was introduced into the ceremony of the Grand Lodge. It is highly likely that Desaguliers and his Masonic friends in the Royal Society were prime movers. Certainly, nothing could have been introduced without their approval. The Craft changed dramatically during the time that Desaguliers was active. The original Grand Lodge, as far as we can tell, was little more than an annual assembly for a feast or festival. The Desaguliers era saw the introduction of the keeping of minutes, an improvement in administration, and the introduction of the third degree. This was entirely in keeping with his organizational propensities.

We do not know much about the later years of this illustrious Freemason. One report has it that misfortune overtook him, and that sorrow and poverty were his fate. James Cawthorn, in a poem, entitled the "Vanity of Human Enjoyments" (Poems, 1771), indicates that he was in needy circumstances at the time of his death:

"How poor, neglected Desaguliers fell;
How he who taught two gracious kings
*to view
All Boyle
* ennobled and all Bacon*knew,
Died, in a cell without a friend to save.
Without a guinea
*, and without a grave."

If this is true, it is the height of irony that one of our most important Freemasons should have died without relief. Whatever the case, his legacy to Freemasonry across the world was profound and lasting.

* King George I and King George II. (Although King George II was less interested in scientific inquiry than George I and George III).

* Robert Boyle was a noted scientist of the time. High school students nowadays learn Boyle's Law concerning the behavior of gases.

*Francis Bacon was a polymath from the 17th century: a scientist, philosopher, and (some say) the true writer of Shakespeare's works.

* Guinea. A gold coin of high value. It was exchangeable for the sum of one pound sterling and one shilling, or one and 1/20 pounds. Even long after it had ceased to be coined, the sum of 'one guinea' long persisted in England (up to decimalization in the 1960s). In the world of the well-to-do, tailors' and physicians' bills were usually in guineas.

A. D. 1720 . . . . . . . . No. 430

Heating by Steam for various Manufacturing Purposes


GEORGE, by the grace of god, &c., to all whom these presents shall come, greeting.

(surely GEORGE PAYNE!)

WHEREAS our trusty and wellbeloved John Theophilus Desaguliers, Doctor of Laws, Daniel Niblet, Coppersmith, William Vreem, Instrument Maker, have, by their petition, humbly represented unto us, that they by their great expense, labor and study, found out a new Invention

"for making the steam and vapor of boiling liquids useful for many purposes, and particularly for drying malt, hop, starch, and other humid substances, and for baking, brewing, distilling, boiling, and making of salt, better and with a less quantity of fire, without mixing the fiery particles with the several substances so much as in the way commonly used, by which Invention several works may be effected without danger, such as drying gum powder, boiling pitch, tarr, oils, varnishes, wax, tallow, sugar, and extracting spirits from turpentine and other inflammable liquors, which, according to the common way, are apt to set houses on fire, and often prove a very bad consequence in great cities;"

and humbly pray us to grant them, that the said John Theophilus Desaguliers, Daniel Niblet, and William Vreem, our Royal Letters Patent for the sole use and benefit of the said Invention for the space of fourteen years, according to the statute in that case made and provided.

NOW KNOW YEE, that we, being willing to give encouragement to all arts and Inventions which may be of public use and benefit, of our especial grace, certain knowledge and meer motion, have given and granted, and by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, do give and grant unto the said John Theophilus Desaguliers, Daniel Niblet, and William Vreem, there and ever of there executors, administrators, and assignes, especial license, full power, sole privilege and authority, that they the said John Theophilus Desaguliers, Daniel Niblet, and William Vreem their and every of their executors, administrators, and assigns, and every of them, by himself and themselves, or by his or their duty or duties servants and agents, or such others as they, the said John Theophilus Desaguliers, Daniel Niblet, and William Vreem their and every of their executors, administrators, and assigns, shall at any time agree with, and no others, from time to time and at all time during the term of years here and expressed, shall and lawfully may exercise, work use and enjoy, within that part of our kingdom of Great Britain called England, our dominion of Wales, and town Berwick-upon-Tweed, the said new Invention for making the steam and vapor of boiling liquors useful for the purposes aforesaid, as above described, and that they, the said John Theophilus Desaguliers, Daniel Niblet, and William Vreem their and every of their executors, administrators, and assigns, shall and may have and enjoy the whole profit, benefit, commodity, and advantage from time to time coming, growing, accruing, and arising by reason of the said Invention, for enduring the full term of years herein mention, to have , hold, exercise, and enjoy the said license, powers, privileges, and advantages herein-before granted, were mentioned to be granted, unto the said John Theophilus Desaguliers, Daniel Niblet, and William Vreem their and every of their executors, administrators, and assigns, for enduring and unto the full and term of fourteen years from the day of the date of these presents next and immediately ensuing, and fully to be complete and ended according to the statue in such case made and provided; and to end that the said John Theophilus Desaguliers, Daniel Niblet, and William Vreem there and every of there executors, administrators, and assigns, may have and enjoy the full benefit , and sole use and exercise of the said Invention according to our gracious intention herein-before declared , we do by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, require and strictly command all and every person and persons, bodies politic and corporate, and all other our subjects whatsoever, of what estate, quality and degree, name and condition soever they be, within that part of our said kingdom of Great Britain called England, our dominion of Wales, and town of Berwick-upon-Tweed, that neither they nor any of them at any time during the continuance of the said term of fourteen years hereby granted, either directly or indirectly, do make, use, or put in practice the said Invention, or any part of the same so attained unto by the said John Theophilus Desaguliers, Daniel Niblet, and William Vreem, aforesaid, nor shall in anywise counterfeit, imitate, or resemble the same nor shall make or cause any addition thereunto or subtraction from the same, whereby to pretend himself or themselves inventor or inventors, devisor or devisors thereof, without the license, consent, or agreement of the said John Theophilus Desaguliers, Daniel Niblet, and William Vreem their and every of their executors, administrators, and assigns, in writing under their hand and seals first had and obtain in that behalf, upon such pains and penalties as can or maybe justly inflicted on such offenders, for their contempt of this our royal command, and further, to be answerable the said John Theophilus Desaguliers, Daniel Niblet, and William Vreem their and every of their executors, administrators, and assigns, and every of them, according to law, for their damage thereby occasion; and more over, we do be these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, will and command all and singular our justices of the piece, mayors, sheriffs, bailiffs, constables, headboroughs, and all other officers and ministers whatsoever of us, our heirs and successors, for the time being, that they or any of them do not nor shall at anytime hereafter during the said term hereby granted , in anywise molest trouble, or hinder the said John Theophilus Desaguliers, Daniel Niblet, and William Vreem their and every of their executors, administrators, and assigns, or any of them, their or any of their deputies, servants, or agents, in or about the due or lawful making use or exercise of the aforesaid Invention, or any thing thereto; provided always, and these our Letters Patents are and shall be upon this condition, that if at any time during the said term hereby granted, shall be made appear to us, our heirs or successors, or any six or more of our or their Privy council, that this our grant is contrary to law or prejudicial or inconvenient to our subjects in general, or that the said Invention is not a new Invention, as to the public use or exercise thereof within that part of our said kingdom of Great Britain called England, our dominion of Wales, and town of Berwick-upon-Tweed, or not invented or found out by the said John Theophilus Desaguliers, Daniel Niblet, and William Vreem, some or one of them as aforesaid , then, upon signification and declaration thereof , to be made by us, out heirs or successors under our or their signet or privy seal or by the lords and others of our or there Privy Council, or any six or more of them, under their hand, these out letter patents shall forward the cease, determine, or be utterly void to all intensive purposes, anything herein -before contained to the contrary notwithstanding; provided also, that these our Letters Patent, or any thing herein contained , shall not extend, or be construed to extend, to give privilege to the said John Theophilus Desaguliers, Daniel Niblet, and William Vreem their and every of their executors, administrators, and assigns, or any of them , to use or imitate any Invention or work whatsoever which hath heretofore be found out or invented by any other our subject whatsoever , and publicly used or exercised within that part of our said kingdom of Great Britain called England, our dominion of Wales or town of Berwick-upon-Tweed, unto whom like letter patent and privilege have been already granted for the sole use, exercise, and benefit thereof, it being our will and pleasure that the said John Theophilus Desaguliers, Daniel Niblet, and William Vreem their and every of their executors, administrators, and assigns, that these our Letters Patent , or the enrollment there of, shall be in and by all things, good, firm, valid, sufficient, and effectual in the law, according to the intent and meaning thereof, and shall be taken, construed, and adjudged in the most favorable and beneficial sense for the best advantage of the said John Theophilus Desaguliers, Daniel Niblet, and William Vreem their and every of their executors, administrators, and assigns, as well in all courts of records as else where, and by all and singular the officers and minister what so ever of us, our heir and successors, within that part of our said kingdom of Great Britain called England, our dominion of Wales, and town of Berwick-upon-Tweed, and amongst all and every the subjects of us, our heir and successors , whatsoever and wheresoever, notwithstanding, the not full and certain describing the nature or quality of the said Invention, or of the materials there to conducing or belonging .

In witness, &c. Witness our selfe, at Westminster, the Twenty-fifth day of June. [1720]

By Writt of Privy Seal.


The "Modern" or Grand Lodge of England

By the year 1717 there were only four lodges in the London area and the Craft was in danger of losing its traditional identity. There was little reason for it to exist at all. It was a victim of its own success after overcoming the threat from the Church and being a promoter of democracy and open science. In the rest of England the situation was much better. A Grand Lodge formed in York before 1705 claimed to be the "Grand Lodge of all England". Not to remain behind the four Lodges in London met at the Appletree Tavern in February 1717 and a general meeting of the four lodges was organised for the 24 June, St John the Baptist’s Day, at the Goose and Gridiron to elect a Grand Master to govern the Order. Mr Anthony Sayer, a member, was elected first Grand Master and the assembly drew up the regulations. This Grand Lodge and its elected Grand Master took control of all the English Lodges and decided which one was regular and which was not. Later on the Craft spread through the world partly under the London leadership. Not all lodges agree to this leadership of London and, in particular, the lodge in York objected, but lost. The new structure became stronger and stronger and regulated all the lodges in England. Later on the Royal Family took the top leadership, exactly as the local High Nobility ran the Scottish one.

Soon after the formation of the London Grand Lodge its second Grand Master, George Payne, collected many manuscripts on the subject, including copies of the Ancient Charges. It was decided to publish the Book of Constitutions in 1720 but, at that time, many old manuscripts were burn to prevent them to fall in the hands of a fraction known as the "moderns". In 1724 the then Grand Master, the Duke of Richmond, established the first Committee of Charity to provide a fund to help needy Masons.

In 1727 the Office of Provincial Grand Master was created to run secondary centres of administration and its first Grand Masters for North Wales and South Wales were nominated. Also in 1727 the first warrants were given to oversee lodges in Gibraltar and Madrid and from 1728 many lodges opened in the British Colonies, in the USA and in many foreign countries. By 1733 fifty-three lodges were affiliated to the London Grand Lodge and in 1738 a revised Book of Constitutions was published. The relations between the London Grand Lodge and the York Grand Lodge deteriorated continuously while the relations with the Scottish Grand Lodge remained good, even if there was competition between them for seniority.

Organised Freemasonry was created on 24 June 1717 with the foundation of the Grand Lodge of England. During their meeting at the Goose and Gridiron Ale House in St Paul’s Churchyard, the four "Old Lodges" elected Anthony Sayer as "Grand Master" and agree to meet at a Grand Feast once a year. For three years it seems that this yearly social feast was the only meeting of the London lodges organised by the Grand Master, with no contact or interference with the provincial lodges. Sayer’s successors, George Payne and the Rev. Dr. Theophilus Desaguliers, with the help of Rev. Dr. James Anderson, reorganised the Craft. In 1720 Payne was responsible for the codification of the Grand Lodge regulations, and a grand secretary was elected charged to write the official Minutes. In 1723 Anderson wrote, and published, the first Constitution of the Freemasons that included the regulations, as well as a history of the Craft, based partly on the Old Charges, but with some imaginative extensions due to Anderson’s imagination. This made the Craft known to the public at large.

Dr. Desaguliers, through his friendship with Isaac Newton, attracted many well-known people to the Craft. Dr. Desaguliers, the son of Huguenot refugees, was a typical speculative Mason committed to the ideal of tolerance. He was also what is called a "physicist" interested in the study of the "Hidden mysteries of Nature and Science" who attracted many members and fellows of the Royal Society. After him, at least twelve other Grand Masters were Fellows of the Royal Society, and many others were Grand Officers. After 1720 all the Grand Masters were nobles or of royal rank.

By that time the operative Masons lost control of the Craft whose leadership passed to members of the upper English society. Starting around 1725 many provincial lodges fell under the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge, although some refused to join, such as those of York which created their own independent Grand Lodge. Support for the centralised Craft grew during the eighteenth century and Freemasonry expanded rapidly through the Industrial Revolution.

The word "Lodge" has meant many things to different people. It describes the building, or room, in which the Freemasons meet; it also means the group of people using that room, or building; and finally, it refers to the meeting as such. Initially there were no permanent Masonic Halls or Temples, and Lodges were usually held in taverns, or coffee-houses.

The lodge room had an oblong table in the middle with the necessary objects laid on it. The Master and the Brethren sat around it. The emblems and symbols required by the current ceremony were displayed in a space delimited by a line drawn on the floor with chalk ("drawing the lodge"). The candidate was expected to wipe it off after his initiation. The following feasting and drinking took place in the same room. The same procedure was normally used for all Craft degrees during all the eighteenth century, although it is not known when they were introduced.

The structures of the ceremonies are better known. First the candidate took an Obligation on the Bible to preserve the mysteries of the Craft. The mason Word and Sign were then given to the candidate and the Charges (the New Mason duties to God, to his Master and to his fellowmen), as well as the legendary history, were read. A two-degree system of Entered Apprentice and Fellow Craft existed by 1700. The third degree of Master Mason was introduced around 1720. Slowly the ceremonies became more elaborate, a short catechism, using a simple symbolism based on the stonemason’s tools, was used and the purpose of the degree was explained. From the 1770s these explanations were greatly expanded, using additional working tools as symbols of specific virtues and symbolical explanations of the candidate’s preparation for each degree, as well as the lodge’s furniture and members regalia. To day there are many degree ceremonies but, basically, they are still the same as those used after a standard ritual was imposed in 1816. 

The government of the Craft was also codified. The line of authority starting downward from the Grand Master in the Grand Lodge is also used in all the other lodges. The Master, the lodge’s principal officer, conducts the ceremonies and administers the lodge with the assistance of two Wardens. Below there are two Deacons who act as messengers between the Master and the Wardens; they also help the candidate in the ceremonies. There are also two Guardians of the Lodge, one inside and one outside. The Outer Guard, the Tyler, keeps out eventual intruders and prepares the candidate for the ceremonies. Before he was also "drawing the lodge" in chalk on the floor. The inner Guard controls the door and admits the candidates when they are ready and properly prepared. In the eighteenth century there was no Inner Guard and his duty were done by the Junior Warden, or by a Steward. The Stewards, initially depending of the Wardens, were responsible for the refreshments and this shows clearly the importance of conviviality in early Freemasonry. Now in England the Stewards serve wine at the festive board, the meal served at the end of the meeting of the lodge. The ritual and ceremonial is under the responsibility of a Director (initially Master) of Ceremonies and the day-to-day administration is done by the Treasury and Secretary.

In the eighteenth century communications were difficult and it was not easy to administer the provincial lodges. Provincial Grand lodges were created to solve this problem and their statute was defined in 1813. They were mainly responsible for creating new lodges in their province in Great Britain, and in the British Colonies and Possessions. In the foreign countries independent Grand Lodges were created.

Although there were many early operative lodges in Scotland, the first Grand Lodge dates from 1736 when four lodges got together on 30 November, and William St Clair was elected Grand Master Mason of Scotland. Operative Masons remained powerful much longer than in England, new lodges were slow to come, and serious internal dissension between operative and speculative Masons did not help. In 1743 Canongate Kilwinning Lodge left the Grand Lodge of Scotland and remained outside for seventy years during which it chartered lodges in Scotland and in North America. It was also directly involved in the Jacobite Rebellion of 1745, even if most lodges did not got involved in politics. One of the most famous Scottish Masons of that time was Robert Burns.

There is no historical evidence of operative lodge in Ireland and the first trace of a speculative one dates from 1688 in Dublin. The Grand Lodge of Ireland met in Dublin in 1725 and elected lord of Rosse as its "New Grand Master". Many provincial lodges refused to accept the leadership of the Dublin Grand Lodge. Catholics and Protestants were accepted in the Craft from the beginning.

About ten years after the founding of the Grand Lodge of England some changes in custom and rituals were introduced, and some Brethren were rather upset with these interferences in the old rules. These members joined force with Irish Masons who had been refused entry in the English lodges, mainly because their rituals were different. In 1751 they formed six lodges and created a Grand Committee and, within two years, they also created an independent "Antients" Grand Lodge. They claimed to have restored the ancient procedures and they grew rapidly to become a strong rival of the earlier Grand Lodge, now known as the "Modern" Grand lodge. Laurence Dermott, an Irishman, was the Grand Secretary of the "Antients" Lodge for twenty years, and he wrote its Constitution. Within twenty years the "Antients" had two hundred lodges in England and overseas, that was half the number of lodges affiliated with the older "Modern" Grand lodge. Moreover the "Antients" Grand Lodge was recognised as the legitimate Masonic authority by the Irish and Scottish Grand lodges.

The "Modern" Grand Lodge increased in strength too. William Preston published his "Illustration of Masonry" in 1772 that confirmed the supremacy of the Craft over the fight between the two English Grand Lodges that were, however, good examples of tolerance and harmony. In Protestant England they were among the few national organisations run, from time to time, by Catholic Grand Masters. At the close of the eighteenth century Freemasonry was seen by the public as dedicated to benevolence and the moral good. The Craft was also non-political and the American Revolution had little effect on it, in contrary to what happened with the French Revolution of 1789. Initially the French Revolution was greeted with sympathy in England. The elimination of an absolutist tyranny, to be replaced by a constitutional monarchy and an elected government, were well accepted, but the "Terror" changed everything. Freemasonry was blamed for its part in releasing this violence, although there were no proof of any kind of interference. On the contrary English Freemasonry, which was run by Royal Grand Masters since 1782, was far from being a subversive organisation. In order to heal the trauma due to the implications of the French Revolution, both English organisations worked together from 1798. In 1813 the 21 Articles of Union were approved and the United Grand Lodge of England replaced the two previous ones under the Grand Mastership of Augustus Frederick, Duke of Sussex and son of King George III.

The Duke was politically and religiously tolerant in this age of bigotry. He supported Catholic emancipation and was friendly with the Jews. He reorganised the Craft and the Royal Arch so that they would be universal, and open to men of all faiths. The revised Craft of 1814-16 and the revised Royal Arch of 1834-35 were de-Christianised by removing all Christian references from both rituals. As a result, it was easier for non-Christians to enrol in the Craft, and Freemasonry could proclaim that, while supporting religion, it was not supporting any in particular; in other words, Freemasonry was not a religion.

This revision changed also the nature of the English Freemasonry. In the eighteenth century the rituals had been a mean to gain admission into a social society. The New Rituals, based on the three Masonic Principles of Brotherly Love, Relief and Truth, emphasised the centrality of God in human existence, and they became the basis of Freemasonry and not only entrance ceremonies to a social club. In this way, Freemasonry, rooted in morality and religion, expanded rapidly through the whole world at a rate unthinkable by the early nineteenth century authors of the revised rituals.

The Grand Lodges of Scotland and Ireland followed closely the events that led to the United Grand Lodge of England and, while independent of each other, maintained close contacts between them. They all became part of the social environment. Freemasonry grew again during the Industrial Revolution. The new ideas that it generated created problems to most social organisations, with the exception of Freemasonry. The Craft, due to its unchanging basic principles, continued to offer to its members coming from all ways of life, but equal in their lodges, a place for polite discussion.

The first, or premier, Grand Lodge

The first Grand Lodge in the world was founded in London in 1717. It was not, however, until 1730, the year in which Prichard’s "Masonry Dissected" was published, that new ceremonials and esoteric rituals were made available in written form to all the lodges to replace the old ones of pre-1700. The first Grand Lodge was at the base of the spectacular growth of Freemasonry in the following years.

The first Grand Lodge was created with the idea of a club in the mind of the founders. In the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, meetings of accepted Masons had some esoteric content, but were mostly convivial affairs. Lodges, after all, met in taverns like all ordinary clubs. The first known club dates from 1659 and they soon became very popular. However the creation of the first Grand Lodge that met four times a year must not be seen as the creation of a new club. Freemasons did not need one more club since their lodge was already providing all they needed in this way. Of the four lodges that created the first Grand Lodge, one had mostly well-to-do members while the other three had mainly artisans and Craftsmen among their members. This shows that they saw the first Grand Lodge as a friendly society that would look after the members and their families in case of necessity. Their main aim, however, was to bring together a well-organised Masonic centre to co-ordinate the London Lodges and writes a new Constitution; and in this they succeeded. With the decline of the old operative fraternities, the Old MS. Charges written by people living in another time and in other conditions, had lost most of their usefulness, but they still contained some elements worth saving.

The four lodges met on St John’s Day in 1717 with the oldest Lodge Master in the chair; they decided to hold quarterly meetings –known as Quarterly Communication- and an early General Assembly and Feast when the next Grand Master would be elected. The first Grand Lodge restricted its jurisdiction to London and Westminster following the practise of the London Company of Masons. The "four old lodges" believed that their existence was going back in the long past, and they did not take into consideration the fact that new lodges could have been created since. And some had come to life outside and inside the first Grand Lodge jurisdiction and their members were also regular Masons. They were individually independent and would not accept any outside jurisdiction, although they greeted visiting Masons from other lodges. From the start the first Grand Lodge met their opposition. The first Grand Lodge succeeded, however, to bring many London and country lodges under its jurisdiction, and it also created new ones. The Grand Lodge grew very fast and extended its jurisdiction outside London (64 loges in 1725) to become, finally, a national organisation.

At the beginning the first Grand Lodge membership included a Grand Master elected annually, two Wardens and, as members, the Masters and the Wardens of the four old lodges that had founded it as well as those of the lodges that joined later on. The ordinary lodges had a Right Worshipful Master, A secretary, sometime a Treasurer, a Tyler, and a Steward or some Brethren acting as such. For the first three years all officers of the first Grand Lodge were elected, but this changed after 1720. The Grand Master was authorised to appoint his Wardens and, sometime, a Deputy Grand Master; the Grand Wardens chose also some Stewards to assist them. From 1732 each Steward nominated his successor and, from 1735, it was decided that all Grand Officer, except the Grand Master, had to be chosen among the past Stewards. From 1735 the Grand Stewards formed their own lodge that sent twelve representatives at each communication -meeting- of the Grand Lodge instead of the Master and Wardens of each lodge. In 1736 it was decided that the Grand Lodge would include all present and former Grand Officers, the Masters and Wardens of each member lodge, and the Master, Wardens and nine representatives of the Stewards’ Lodge. The nomination of the Stewards was the responsibility of the Stewards’ Lodge. In 1779 it was decided that only Past Stewards, paying regular members of the Stewards’s Lodge, were eligible for Grand Office. In 1792 the Stewards’ Lodge became the Grand Stewards’ Lodge. The Grand Stewards rank as Grand Officer while in office and their duty consists to organise the annual grand festival under the Grand Master’s direction and to organise all meetings, including the quarterly "Communications". Past and present Grand Stewards alone can become members of the Grand Stewards’ Lodge which, being a Master Masons’ Lodge, cannot raise masons.

In 1724 the Old Lodge of York organised itself into a Grand lodge and Ireland and Scotland followed in 1725 and 1736. Many military lodges came into existence and they met where the regiment was at the time.

Dr. James Anderson edited the first Constitutions of the first Grand Lodge in 1723. It was based on the Old MS. Charges of the fourteenth –or earlier- century. The title "Constitutions" was used by the London Company of Masons to describe their copies of the Old Charges. The Old MS. Charges brought Masonry, or Geometry, from the children of Lamech to Solomon and, through a long way, to England. Anderson traces the origin of Masonry to Adam who taught geometry to Cain so that he could build a city. From there, it went down to Noah and his son, and to Moses. He derives all civilised architecture from Solomon’s Temple and traces sciences’ progress from Greece, to Sicily, and finally, to Rome. Art was lost in England when the Romans left but Charles Martel brought it back from France after the Saxon invasion. Anderson states that his history comes from the general records of the Craft and their faithful traditions. In fact, he drew most of it from the Bible and older writers, including Cooke. Anderson issued a new version of the Constitutions in 1738 and this was revised completely by John Entick in 1756. Anderson’s Constitutions have had a large influence on world Masonry. The first Irish Constitutions of 1730 was based on Anderson’ and the American borrowed fully his text for their own use.

In 1717 there were only four lodges affiliated to the Grand Lodge, but many more existed outside its jurisdiction. It was difficult, if not impossible, for these other lodges to join, and the new ones created later on found the same difficulties, since there was no rules stating how this should be done. The second Grand Master, George Payne, had the necessary rules adopted and incorporated in the Constitutions. From then on new lodges knew how to join and old ones could, if they wanted, regularise their position with the Grand Lodge and many did. However many old lodges, operative and speculative, refused to join. As an example we can mention the old lodge of York which, not only refused to affiliate, but also declared itself in 1725 to be "the Grand Lodge of All England held at York". It became dormant in 1740, was revived in 1761, and disappeared in 1792.

The first reference to a Jewish Mason in England dates from 1732 and refers to Daniel Delvalle or Dalvalle, a Master of the Cheapside lodge. There is also a reference of 1658 concerning the arrival at Newport, Rhode Island, USA, of fifteen Jewish families of Dutch origin bringing with them the three first degrees of Masonry and working them until 1742. There are many doubts concerning this story as no speculative Masonry existed in Holland until the eighteenth century.

Many old lodges that had existed for a long period of time refused to affiliate with the Grand Lodge claiming their right to remain free and independent. Their members maintained their right to do what they liked and refused to follow the rules imposed by the Grand Lodge. Some new lodges also grew outside the Grand Lodge influence.

 The Roman Catholic Church is known to have always been against Freemasonry, even if many Roman Catholics, including priests and higher authorities, have been, and are, members of the Craft. Popes Clement XII in 1738 and Benedict XIV in 1751 issued Bulls against Freemasonry. The Roman Catholic Church has two main objections against the Craft: first, the solemn oath of secrecy and, second, that Freemasonry "tends to undermine belief in Catholic Christianity by substituting for it what is practically a rival religion based on deistic or naturalistic principles". Freemasonry, of course, proclaims not to be a religion at all, but a system of morality and philosophy. Moreover the Craft admits members of all religions as long as they proclaims to believe in the "Glorious Architect of heaven and earth". (IT IS A LIE THEY ARE TOGETHER!!!)

Freemasonry from Harpers's Encyclopaedia of Mystical & Paranormal Experience © 1991 by Rosemary Ellen Guiley

The secret and fraternal organizations believed descended from the craft guilds of the stonemasons. These groups, open to membership by men only, represent no single religion or ideology but instead try to foster spiritual development and fraternal charity among all classes and creeds. Also called the Brotherhood or the Craft, the orders provide a network for business, professional, and social success and advancement. The term "Freemasonry" often is shortened to "Masonry."

 History and Legend

Architects and builder-craftsmen have always occupied a place of honor in society, dating back to ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome. Building symbolizes creation, the raising of an edifice in which to glorify and worship gods and humankind, and correlates to the improvement of the body and mind as a temple for the soul.

Perhaps no building in all of history so exemplifies this idea as King Solomon's temple in ancient Israel. The legends of the temple form the cornerstone of Masonry's founding; but in order to remove any direct references to Judaism or Christianity, the story concentrates on Hiram Abiff, the architect and builder assigned to the construction.

In 1 Kings 7:13-45, the Bible tells that Hiram, King of Tyre, sent Solomon a man named Hiram who was highly skilled in bronze work to make all the pillars, vessels, and other decorations necessary for the temple, which he accomplished. The account is repeated in 2 Chronicles 2:13, but Hiram's tablets are here expanded to include work In gold, silver, iron, wood, engraving, and fabrics. The biblical references to Hiram end here, but the Freemasons have Hiram murdered at the hands of three of his workmen when he would not reveal the secret Word of God hidden in the temple structure. In ritual Masons "die" as Hiram Abiff died, and are reborn in the spiritual bonds of Freemasonry.

Philosopher Manly P. Hall compared the Hiramic legend to the worship of Isis and Osiris in the ancient Egyptian mystery schools, another reputed source for Freemasonry. Osiris also fell victim to ruffians, and the resurrection of his body minus his phallus - and Isis's search for it - seems symbolically similar to the quest for the Lost Word of God. Followers of the Isis cult were known as "widow's sons," after the murder of her husband/brother Osiris, and Masons also are called "sons of the widow."

Followers of Sufic mysticism believe that the builders of King Solomon's temple were really Sufi architects incorporating the holy words of God in numerical equivalents expressed in temple measurements, making Freemasonry Arabic in origin. According to this view, the Saxon King Aethelstan (A.D. 894-939) introduced Masonry to England after learning of it from the Spanish Moors.

None of these theories or legends can be proven. Most Masonic scholars trace the Craft's history to the development of medieval stonemason craft guilds, The skilled stonemasons, few in number, traveled from town to town and were commissioned by local clergy to build churches and cathedrals. In order to guard their knowledge, the masons organized into guilds, complete with passwords, rules of procedure, payment and advancement, and religious devotion.

How or why the stonemasons' craft guilds attracted unskilled, or speculative members remains a mystery. Speculative members were those men, usually of a higher class than the craftsmen, who were interested in the pursuits of spiritual wisdom, philosophy, and often the occult, with no knowledge of stonemasonry. Perhaps the lodge provided cover for more esoteric activities, but most likely hid the members' radical penchant for political and religious reform.

Most Masonic historians consider Elias Ashmole (1617-1692), astrologer, solicitor, officer of the court of Charles II, and antiquarian, to be the first important nonoperative Freemason in England. For years Ashmole had dabbled in alchemy, Rosicrucian philosophy, and the Kabbalah, and counted as friends Francis Bacon and other founders of what became the Royal Society. Ashmole's diary records his initiation into Masonry in October 1646, by which time the English lodges were so crowded with honorary, or Accepted Masons that few claimed even one skilled craftsman as a member.

By the eighteenth century, nearly every pub in England and Scotland hosted a Masonic lodge. To establish preeminence for the English lodges and standardize ritual, four London lodges merged in 1717 into the Grand Lodge of England, with Anthony Sayer as the first Grand Master. George Payne replaced Sayer the next year, followed by the Rev. John Theophilus Desaguliers as Grand Master in 1719. Desaguliers, a lawyer, Fellow of the Royal Society, and chaplain to Frederick, Prince of Wales, helped not only organize the Grand Lodge but used his considerable influence to spread the Craft worldwide, especially to his French homeland.

Between 1751 and 1753, Scots and Irish Freemasons unaffiliated with the Grand Lodge formed the Antient Grand Lodge, competing directly with the Grand Lodge "Moderns" for participating lodges. Both groups became the United Grand Lodge of England in 1813, which exists today.

Beliefs and Symbols

Speculative Masonry inherited seven fundamental principles from the craft guilds: (1) an organization of three grades, called Entered Apprentice, Fellow Craft, and Master Mason; (2) a unit called a lodge; (3) rules of secrecy; (4) methods of member recognition; (5) histories of the craft contained in approximately one hundred manuscripts called the Old Charges, particularly the Regis Manuscript of 1390; (6) a tradition of fraternal and benevolent relations among members; and (7) a thorough Christian grounding.

By 1723 all references to Christianity had been removed with the publication of the Freemasonic Constitutions, instead requiring members to believe in God but allowing personal choice of religion. God - or whatever Supreme Being - became known as "The Great Architect of the Universe": T.G.A.O.T.U.

As there are three degrees in Craft Masonry, also known as the Blue Lodge, the number' three plays a very important part in all Masonic ritual. Hiram Abiff's three murderers symbolize thought, desire, and action, which each Masonic candidate strives to transmute into spiritual thought, constructive emotion, and labor. Petitioners are called "rough ashlars," or uncut stones, which become the building blocks of the temple.

Speculative Masonry borrowed the tools of the craft as symbols of the order: the square, compass, plumb line, and level. Members wear white leather aprons associated with builders. Ritual colors are blue and gold. The capital letter G appearing in the Masonic compass most likely stands for God. Meetings are held in Lodges or Temples: four-sided rectangular structures decorated with Masonic symbols and black-and-white checkered floors, symbolic of humankind's dual nature.

Another Masonic emblem is the Great Pyramid of Giza, always shown with seventy-two stones representing the seventy-two combinations of the Tetragrammaton, or the four-lettered name of God (YHVH) in Hebrew. The pyramid is flat-topped, unfinished, symbolizing humankind's incomplete nature. Floating above the pyramid is the single All-Seeing Eye of the Great Architect, also associated with Horus, son of Isis and Osiris. Both the pyramid and the All-Seeing Eye appear on the United States dollar bill and the reverse of the Great Seal of the United States.

With the formation of the Antient Grand Lodge, a fourth degree called the Holy Royal Arch was added. After the merger in 1813, the Holy Royal Arch became an extension to the Master Mason's degree, a position to which candidates were "exalted." The Holy Royal Arch signifies complete regeneration from death and the high degree of consciousness possible from an intense, spiritual life and oneness with the Great Architect. Members with the Holy Royal Arch degree no longer belong to the Lodge but to a Chapter, overseen by a Grand Chapter. Only Master Masons may receive this rank.

Throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, various Masonic groups expanded the rituals of Craft Freemasonry into more esoteric channels, adding degrees and sometimes bizarre ceremonies. The most famous of these were the ancient rituals introduced by the Comte de St. Germain in France, the Egyptian Rites of Count Cagliostro, the German Rite of Strict Observance, and various borrowings from Rosicrucian and Theosophical practices. Universal Co-Masonry, founded in France in 1893, accepted both men and women and attracted prominent Theosophists Annie Besant and Charles Leadbeater.

Many of these rites passed quickly into oblivion, but not all. Thirty higher degrees, representing more spiritual and esoteric understanding, became the Antient and Accepted Rite of the Thirty-Third Degree. Philosopher Manly P. Hall, who himself achieved the Thirty-Third Degree, compares the ascension to the Higher Degrees to "passing beyond the veil" to true mystic union with God.

Only Master Masons may strive for these "perfected" states, and not every Mason even knows of their existence outside the Craft. Higher Degrees are administered by a Supreme Council, made up of members with the Thirty-Third degree, denoted 33°, the most senior Supreme Council is located in Charleston, South Carolina. In the United States, candidates receive each degree individually in an initiation ceremony, whereas in Great Britain 4° through 17° are conferred with 18°; 19° through 29° with 30°, and 31°, 32° and 33° awarded singly.

The Higher Degrees, in order, are: (4) Secret Master; (5) Perfect Master; (6) Intimate Secretary; (7) Provost and Judge; (8) Intendant of the Building; (9) Elect of Nine; (10) Elect of Fifteen; (11) Sublime Elect; (12) Grand Master Architect; (13) Royal Arch of Enoch; (14) Scottish Knight of Perfection; (15) Knight of the Sword, or of the East; (18) Prince of Jerusalem; (17) Knight of the East and West; (18) Knight of the Pelican and Eagle Sovereign Prince Rose Croix of Heredom; (19) Grand Pontiff; (20) Venerable Grand Master; (21) Patriarch Noachite; (22) Prince of Libanus; (23) Chief of the Tabernacle; Prince of the Tabernacle; (25) Knight of the Brazen Serpent; (26) Prince of Mercy; (27) Commander of the Temple; (28) Knight of the Sun; (29) Knight of St. Andrew; (30) Grand Elected Knight Kadosh Knight of the Black and White Eagle; (31) Grand Inspector Inquisitor Commander; (32) Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret; and (33) Grand Inspector General.

Fame and Infamy

Many readers of the above list might liken the Brotherhood to an elaborate fraternity, blessed with an abundance of mystical offices. But the Roman Catholic church and some other Christian faiths take Freemasonry's hermetic side very seriously and outlaw its practice among church members.

The Vatican issued its first papal condemnation of Freemasonry in 1738, and by 1917 decreed that anyone joining a Masonic organization was excommunicated. Many Catholics, including Vatican prelates, had joined Masonic lodges in the beginning. Many church officials continue to look the other way, especially in England, home of most European Masons. The Greek Orthodox church officially condemned Freemasonry in 1933, calling it a system reminiscent of heathen mystery religions.

S. R. Parchment, author of Operative Masonry and founder of the Rosicrucian Anthroposophic League, stated in no uncertain terms that Masons believe in the potential of Christ in each man, but not in Jesus as the Son of God. Even the Anglican vicar and Masonic apologist Vindex called Freemasonry the embodiment of all religious systems and ancient mysteries, not the Christian organization inherited from the guilds. Of course, many Masons are not Christians.

Stephen Knight, author of The Brotherhood, claims that during ritual ceremonies for the Holy Royal Arch exaltation, candidates learn the Lost Name or Word of God, said to be "Jahbulon." Knight maintains that most Masons do not realize the significance of the name, which he defines as a combination of three names: Jah, for the Hebrew god Yahweh; Bul, the ancient Canaanite fertility god Baal and devil; and On, for Osiris, the Egyptian god of the underworld.

It is impossible, however, to besmirch the characters of so many illustrious Freemasons with devil worship. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was a Mason, and probably Christopher Wren, architect of St. Paul's Cathedral in London. Italian nationalist Giuseppe Garibaldi also professed Freemasonry.

Those who believe the United States is a nation destined to rise and prosper ascribe the country's founding as proof of spiritual intervention via the Craft, noting that eight signatories of the Declaration of Independence, including Benjamin Franklin and John Hancock, were Masons. George Washington became a Freemason in 1752, but declined to assume control of all Masonry in the United States. As a result each state has a Grand Lodge and Grand Chapter.

The Marquis de Lafayette, who joined Washington during the revolution and ardently supported the American cause, was also a Mason, as were sixteen other presidents: Madison, Monroe, Jackson, Polk, Buchanan, Andrew Johnson, Garfield, McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt, Taft, Harding, Franklin Roosevelt, Truman, Lyndon Johnson, Ford, and Reagan. Vice President Hubert Humphrey and Democrat Adlai Stevenson were also "widow's sons."

In England royalty has joined Freemasonry since the beginning, with the King as Grand Patron, although a woman, Queen Elizabeth II, serves as Grand Patroness. Winston Churchill was a Freemason. British Masonry functions much like old school ties, with the Brotherhood strong in the fields of law, jurisprudence, police, government, and the armed forces.


Sources: Foster Bailey. The Spirit of Masonry. London: Lucis Press Ltd., 1957; Keith Grim, general ed. Abingdon Dictionary of Living Religions. Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1981; R. A. Gilbert. "Freemasonry & The Hermetic Tradition." Gnosis no. 6 (Winter 1988): 24-27; Manly P. Hall. Freemasonry of the Ancient Egyptians. 1937. Los Angeles: Philosophical Research Society, 1973; Manly P. Hall. The Lost Keys of Freemasonry. 1923. Richmond, VA: MaCoy Publishing and Masonic Supply Company, 1976; Manly P. Hall. Masonic Orders of Fraternity. Los Angeles: Philosophical Research Society, 1950; Manly P. Hall. The Secret Destiny of America. Los Angeles: Philosophical Research Society, 1944; Stephen Knight. The Brotherhood: The Secret World of the Freemasons. New York: Stein & Day, 1984; S. R. Parchment. Operative Masonry. San Francisco: Rosicrucian Fellowship, 1930; Henry Sadler. Masonic Facts and Fictions. 1887. Wellingborough, Northamptonshire, England: The Aquarian Press, 1985; Idries Shah. The Sufis. Garden City, NY: Anchor/ Doubleday, 1971; Waiter L. Wilmshurst. The Meaning of Masonry. 1927. 5th ed. New York: Bell Publishing Co., 1980; Robert Anton Wilson. "The Priory of Sion: Jesus, Freemasons, Extraterrestrials, the Gnomes of Zurich, Black Israelites and Noon Blue Apples." Gnosis no. 6 (Winter 1988): 30-39.

The First Grand Lodge

The Grand Lodge of England was formed, as the first Grand Lodge in the world, by the coming together of four London Lodges at the Goose and Gridiron Tavern, St. Paul's Churchyard (left), on 24th June 1717. They elected Anthony Sayer, Gentleman, (above) as the first Grand Master and resolved to meet annually at a Grand Feast.

The lodges began to attract men of intellect, notably Dr. John Theophilus Desaguliers (Grand Master 1719) and other members of the Royal Society and the aristocracy, (John 2nd Duke of Montagu, the first noble Grand Master 1721) who changed the Grand Lodge from a simple Feast to a regulatory body.

By 1730 the Grand Lodge had published its Constitutions (1723); begun to keep official Minutes (1723); issued an annual engraved List of Regular Lodges (1723); set up a Charity Committee and Central Charity Fund (1727); held authority over seventy four Lodges in England and Wales, and had begun to export the Craft abroad by issuing deputations to form lodges in Gibraltar and India.


Charles Leadbeater, Mason, Teosophist and Liar!
Charles Leadbeater 33rd Degree, in Masonic Regalia  invented the fiction of the so called "ascended masters" like Saint Germain. 

The swindler, charlatan, spy, and freemason,  Master Saint Germain
The swindler, charlatan, spy, and freemason,  Master Saint Germain

In his book "Hidden Life in Freemasonry", Leadbeater states that, in 1901,  he maintained a long conversation with the so called Master Rakoczi (the swindler, charlatan, spy, and freemason,  Master Saint Germain), in Rome.

Charles W. Leadbeater in his final years left the Theosopical Society and retreated to Australia to help found the Liberal Catholic Church.

Official records place his birth at February 16, 1854, while official Theosophy publications approved by him place his birth at February 17, 1847. He was the son of bookkeeper and was made an Anglican curate in 1878. He experimented with spiritualism, but concluded that the effects were more likely from some "mysterious force" than from spirit visitants. He joined the Theosophical Society in 1883 and shortly thereafter broke from the church and traveled with Madame Helena Blavatsky to India in 1884. He returned to England two years before Madame Blavatsky's death there in 1891 Some of Charles Leadbeater freemasonic books of lies are:


Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, 1831-1891 heralded the dawn of the New Age Movement. Her occult works are the foundation for many occult fraternities. After writing monumental works such as Isis Unveiled, and The Secret Doctrine, the Theosophical Society(1875) was formed to spread her teachings worldwide. She claimed to receive her revelations from Secret Chiefs, or disembodied Ascended Masters, who claimed to be aiding humanity evolve into a race of supermen. Freemasonry took notice and many soon claimed her to be an occult genius:

"The Secret Doctrine and Isis Unveiled are Madame Blavatsky's gifts to humanity, and to those whose vision can pierce the menacing clouds of imminent disaster it is no exaggeration to affirm that these writings are the most vital literary contribution to the modern world. No more can they be compared with other books than can the light of the sun be compared with the lamp of the glowworm. The Secret Doctrine assumes the dignity of a scripture, . . ."
- Manly P. Hall (33rd degree mason), The Phoenix, An Illustrated Review of Occultism and Philosophy, 1960 The Philosophical Research Society, p. 122

Blavatsky soon had a great host of admirers. The Theosophical Society had freemasons Henry Steel Olcott, George H. Felt appointed president and vice-president respectfully. Among the early members were high ranking masons Charles Sothern and Albert Pike (the most famous "Grand Pontiff" of them all).

In 1907 Annie Besant became president of the Theosophical Society. Besant earned the 33rd degree in Co-Masonry, an order that admits woman. Blavatsky before her was also bestowed an 'honorary degree' in Co-Masonry.

Freemason Annie Besant in Masonic clothes and Regalia
Freemason Annie Besant in Masonic clothes and Regalia

The beginnings of the modern New Age Movement began with search for their "own" messiah, as it were. Along with 33rd degree mason C.W. Leadbeater, Annie Beasant promoted a young adept as the messiah; Krisnamurti.
In 1920 Alice married another Theosophist, Foster Bailey, and in 1923 they started The Arcane School to teach disciples how to further the Great Universal Plan under the guidance of the inner hierarchy of spiritual masters led by Christ. After her death in 1949 the school was carried on by her husband. It still flourishes as a large international organization, and an organisation, the Lucis Trust (former Lucifer Trust), was formed to overlook the legal aspects of the School and the published books. The influence of Ms Bailey's difficult writings has been, if anything, even greater than that of Blavatsky in the New Age movement.

And while the Alice Bailey stream has inspired many, it has not gone the way of lesser theosophic and new age teachings like Summit Lighthouse (which also with a series of masters, rays, and so on, derivative of AAB, via the "I AM" movement. One might argue that because of this it belongs to the class of "genuine" channelled communications.
Inexistent Master Djwhal Khul CREATED by self deluded Alice B. Bailey. Pure illusion of her mind.
Inexistent Master Djwhal Khul

Alice Bailey and husband Foster Bailey (32nd degree freemason) continued to interlock the workings of Theosophy with the aims of Freemasonry. Bailey, as founder of Lucis (Lucifer Trust) worked laboriously to fulfill the plan toward a New World Religion, which her (inexistent) master Djwhal Khul had said was the ultimate aim of Freemasonry. The Hierarchy had blessed both their beginnings, her master said.


Alice Bailey, Director of the House of Theosophy in the early part of this century, writes about the role of Freemasonry in the coming New Age and in the realization of the appearance of the Great One [Antilogos], and the reason for all this tremendous secrecy. Actually, Bailey is writing as a conduit for her 'Guiding Spirit', Master D.K. Bailey writes in 'The Externalisation of the Hierarchy', "The Masonic Movement ... will meet the need of those who can, and should, wield power. It is the custodian of the law; it is the home of the Mysteries and the seat of initiation. It holds in its symbolism the ritual of Deity, and the way of salvation is pictorially preserved in its work. The methods of Deity are demonstrated in its Temples and under the All-seeing Eye the work can go forward. It is a far more occult organisation than can be realised and is intended to be the training school for the coming advanced occultists ... in Masonry you have the three paths leading to initiation. As yet they are not used, and one of the things that will eventuate -- when the new universal religion has sway and the nature of esotericism is understood -- will be the utilisation of the banded esoteric organism, the Masonic organism and the Church organism as initiating centres. These three groups converge as their inner sanctuaries are approached.
There is no dissociation between the One Universal Church, the sacred inner Lodge of all true Masons, and the inner-most circles of the esoteric societies. (Pages 511, 513)

Alice Bailey reveals much truth about Freemasonry in these words, above. Freemasonry reveres the Egyptian All-seeing Eye of Horus. Bailey also ties together as one organization the Universal Church of the Antilogos, Freemasonry, and other esoteric (occult) groups such as Rosicrucians, the Knights Templars, the Order of the Golden Dawn, and many other such groups of occult magick throughout history!

The freemason Foster Bailey, the husband of Alice Bailey, also wrote a book which is entitled; The Spirit of Masonry.

The books written by Alice Bailey in collaboration with "the Tibetan" contain many references to the freemasonry, its origins, the course of its history during centuries, and the significant role that a masonry revitalized and more spiritualized will be able to play and play in the future, carrying the light and the energy of the lesson of the Mysteries in the era of Aquarius. "the freemasons have still much interior work to make. The time of a true recognition of the masons, on a great scale, is still far. The freemasonry, in the direction Masonic and spiritual, must still prove of itself. When this takes place and that the spiritual intention subjacent withal work Masonic will be included/understood better, then the law of the Manufacturers could be felt. Then the work of the group for the race could be done. One will see the co-operation conscious of the Lodge to work since the High Places; then the freemasonry will be restored like the guardian of the Mysteries of the spiritual life on the ground, and will prove that it is the force of life in the heart of any true religion.

The Externalization of the Hierarchy - Section IV - Stages in the Externalization [ page 511]
by inexistent Master Djwhal Khul and liar Alice B. Bailey

The three main channels through which the preparation for the new age is going on might be regarded as the Church, the Masonic Fraternity and the educational field. All of them are as yet in relatively static condition, and all are as yet failing to meet the need and to respond to the inner pressure. But in all of these three movements, disciples of "the Great Ones" are to be found and they are steadily gathering momentum and will before long enter upon their designated task.

The Masonic Movement when it can be divorced from politics and social ends and from its present paralyzing condition of inertia, will meet the need of those who can, and should, wield power. It is the custodian of the law; it is the home of the Mysteries and the seat of initiation. It holds in its symbolism the ritual of Deity, and the way of salvation is pictorially preserved in its work. The methods of Deity are demonstrated in its Temples, and under the All-seeing Eye the work can go forward. It is a far more occult organization than can be realized, and is intended to be the training school for the coming advanced occultists. In its ceremonials lies hid the wielding of the forces connected with the growth and life of the kingdoms of nature and the unfoldment of the divine aspects in man. In the comprehension of its symbolism will come the power to cooperate with the divine plan. It meets the need of those who work on the first Ray of Will or Power.

The Externalization of the Hierarchy - Section IV - Stages in the Externalization [ page 513]
by inexistent Master Djwhal Khul and liar Alice B. Bailey

In the esoteric group, which is composed of the true spiritual esotericists found in all exoteric occult groups, in the church, by whatever name it may be called, and in Masonry you have the three paths leading to initiation. As yet they are not used, and one of the things that will eventuate - when the new universal religion has sway and the nature of esotericism is understood - will be the utilization of the banded esoteric organisms, the Masonic organism and the Church organism as initiating centers. These three groups converge as their inner sanctuaries are approached.

There is no dissociation between the One Universal Church, the sacred inner Lodge of all true Masons, and the innermost circles of the esoteric societies. Three types of men have their need met, three major rays are expressed, and the three paths to the Master are trodden, leading all three to the same portal and the same Hierophant.

Esoteric Astrology - The Science of Triangles - Triangles of Force - Planets
[page 446] by
liar Alice B. Bailey

The latter fact is responsible for the widespread attack made upon Masonry during this century. Masonry - inadequate and corrupt as it has been and guilty of over-emphasizing certain forms of symbols - is nevertheless a germ or seed of future hierarchical effort when that effort is - at some later date - externalized on Earth. Masonry is governed by the seventh ray, and when certain important changes have been made and the spirit of Masonry is grasped instead of the letter, then we shall see a new form of hierarchical endeavor appear to aid in the restoration of the ancient and sacred Mysteries among men.

The Rays and the Initiations - Part Two - Section One - The Aspirant and the Mysteries of Initiation
[page 534]
by liar Alice B. Bailey

The Masonic Work is an ancient and laudable attempt to preserve in some germinal form the spiritual truth anent initiation. In spite of distortion, some loss of the Ancient Landmarks and a deplorable crystallization, the truth is there and at a later date (in the early part of the next century) a group of enlightened Masons will rearrange the rituals and adapt the present forms and formulas in such a manner that the spiritual possibilities, symbolically indicated, will emerge with greater clarity and a deepened spiritual potency; the coming form of Masonry in the New Age will necessarily rest upon the foundation of a newly interpreted and enlightened Christianity, having no relation to theology and being universal in [534] nature.

Source: Alice A. Bailey, The Externalisation of the Hierarchy, 1957, Lucis Publishing Company, New York, ISBN 0-85330-106-9, p. 133

Alice A. Bailey, The Rays and the Initiations: Volume V, A Treatise on the Seven Rays, 1960, Lucis Publishing Company, New York, ISBN 0-85330-122-0, p. 80

Djwhal Khul.

From the book above The Externalization of the Hierarchy - Section III - Forces behind the Evolutionary Process [in page  491]
The Release of Atomic Energy by Djwhal Khul
August 9, 1945

I would like at this time to touch upon the greatest spiritual event which has taken place since the fourth kingdom of nature, the human kingdom, appeared. I refer to the release of atomic energy, as related in the newspapers this week, August 6, 1945, in connection with the bombing of Japan.

Some years ago I told you that the new era would be ushered in by the scientists of the world and that the inauguration of the kingdom of God on Earth would be heralded by means of successful scientific investigation. By this first step in the releasing of the energy of the atom this has been accomplished, and my prophecy has been justified during this momentous year of our Lord 1945. Let me make one or two statements anent this discovery, leaving you to make your own application and deductions. Little as to the true nature of this happening is as yet known, and still less is understood. Certain ideas and suggested thoughts may be of real value here and enable you to see this stupendous event in better perspective.

1. It was the imminence of this "release" of energy which was one of the major subjective factors in the precipitation of this last phase of the war. This world war started in 1914, but its last and most important phase began in 1939. [page 492] Up till then it was a world war. After that date, and because the forces of evil took advantage of the state of war and belligerency existing on the planet, the real war began, involving the entire three worlds of human evolution and a consequent activity of the Hierarchy. Man's attention is normally focused on the externalities of living. Nevertheless, all great discoveries, such as those made in connection with astronomy or in relation to the laws of nature or involving such a revelation as that of radioactivity or the epoch-making event announced this week concerning the first steps taken in the harnessing of cosmic energy, are ever the result of inner pressure emanating from Forces and Lives found in high Places. Such inner pressures themselves function under the laws of the Spirit and not just under what you call natural laws; they are the result of the impelling work of certain great Lives, working in connection with the third aspect of divinity, that of active intelligence, and are concerned with the substance or matter aspect of manifestation. Such activities are motivated from Shamballa. This activity is set in motion by these Lives, working on Their high plane, and it gradually causes a reaction in the various departments of the Hierarchy, particularly those working under third, fifth and seventh ray (Saint Germain) Masters. Eventually, disciples upon the physical levels of activity become aware of the inner ferment, and this happens either consciously or unconsciously. They become "impressed," and the scientific work is then started and carried through into the stages of experimentation and final success.

One point should here be remembered, and that is that this phase applies to both the great White Lodge and the Black Lodge - the one dedicated to the beneficent task of purifying and aiding all lives in the three worlds of material evolution and to the release of the soul in form, and the other to the retardation of the evolutionary process and to the continuous crystallizing of the material forms which hide and veil the anima mundi. Both groups have been profoundly interested and implicated in this matter of the release of energy from the atom and the liberation of its [493] inner aspect, but their motives and objectives were widely different.

2. The imminence of this release - inevitable and under direction - produced an enormous tension in hierarchical circles because (to express the idea colloquially) a race was on between the Dark Forces and the Forces of Light to acquire possession of the techniques necessary to bring about this liberation of needed energy. Had the Dark Forces triumphed, and had the Axis Powers obtained possession of the needed scientific formulas, it would have led to a major planetary disaster. The released energy would have been used first of all to bring about the complete destruction of all opposing the forces of evil, and then it would have been prostituted to the preservation of an increasingly materialistic and non-idealistic civilization. Germany could not be trusted with this power, for all her motives were compelling wrong.

You might here fall back on the trite religious platitude that the innate good in humanity and mankind's inherent divinity would eventually have triumphed, because naught can finally overcome the universal trend to good. You are prone to forget that if the evil forces possess potencies which can destroy form in the three worlds on such a wide scale that the souls of advanced aspirants and disciples, and those of initiates seeking incarnation, cannot come into outer expression during a particular world crisis, then you have direfully affected the time-schedule of the evolutionary process; you will have greatly delayed (perhaps for millennia of years) the manifestation of the kingdom of God. The time had come for that manifestation, and hence the powerful activity of the dark forces.

Harry S. Truman Mason and Mass Murderer!
Harry Truman in Masonic Regalia.
33rd President of United States and Grand Master Mason
Authorized the launching of Atom Bombs over Japan

NOTE BY "The One":
Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 

On August 6, 1945, the United States used its massive, secret weapon against Hiroshima, Japan. This atomic bomb, the equivalent of 20,000 tons of TNT, flattened the city, killing tens of thousands of civilians. While Japan was still trying to comprehend this devastation three days later, the United States struck again, this time, on Nagasaki. Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., pilot of the ENOLA GAY, the plane that dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, waves from his cockpit before the takeoff, 6 August 1945.  At 2:45 a.m. on Monday, August 6, 1945, a B-29 bomber, the Enola Gay, took off from Tinian, a North Pacific island in the Marianas, 1,500 miles south of Japan. The twelve-man crew were on board to make sure this secret mission went smoothly. Colonel Paul Tibbets, the pilot, nicknamed the B-29 the "Enola Gay" after his mother. Just before take-off, the plane's nickname was painted on its side. 

The First two Atom Bombs in 1945

The Hiroshima bomb was made from highly-enriched uranium-235. This was prepared by diffusion enrichment techniques using the very small differences in mass of the two main isotopes: U-235 (originally 0.7% in the uranium) and U-238, the majority. As UF6, there is about a one percent difference in mass between the molecules, and this enables concentration of the less common isotope. About 60 kilograms of highly-enriched uranium was used in the bomb which was released over Hiroshima, Japan's seventh largest city, on 6 August 1945. Some 90% of the city was destroyed.

The explosive charge for the bomb detonated over Nagasaki three days later was provided by about of 8 kilograms of plutonium-239 (>90% Pu-239), and its preparation depended on the operation of special nuclear reactors. During 1942, under conditions of wartime secrecy, the first human-designed reactor was constructed, in a squash court at the University of Chicago. It used highly purified graphite to slow the neutrons released in fission to enable further fission. This paved the way for more substantial production reactors at Hanford. The plutonium-239 generated in these could be separated by simple chemical methods, with no need for the complexities of isotope separation. The plutonium was first used for the test explosion at Alamogordo in New Mexico on 16 July 1945, ushering in the nuclear age with all its threat and promise.

The Effects of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki Bombs

The devastating effects of both kinds of bombs depended essentially upon the energy released at the moment of the explosion, causing immediate fires, destructive blast pressures, and extreme local radiation exposures. Since the bombs were detonated at a height of some 600 metres above the ground, very little of the fission products were deposited on the ground beneath. Some deposition occurred however in areas near to each city, owing to local rainfall occurring soon after the explosions. This happened at positions a few kilometres to the east of Nagasaki, and in areas to the west and north-west of Hiroshima. For the most part, however, these fission products were carried high into the upper atmosphere by the heat generated in the explosion itself.

In Hiroshima, of a resident civilian population of 250 000 it was estimated that 45 000 died on the first day and a further 19 000 during the subsequent four months. In Nagasaki, out of a population of 174 000, 22 000 died on the first day and another 17 000 within four months. Unrecorded deaths of military personnel and foreign workers may have added considerably to these figures.

It is impossible to estimate the proportion of these 103 000 deaths, or of the further deaths in military personnel, which were due to radiation exposure rather than to the very high temperatures and blast pressures caused by the explosions. From the estimated radiation levels, however, it is apparent that radiation alone would not have been enough cause death in most of those exposed beyond a kilometre of the ground zero below the bombs. Most deaths appear to have been from the explosion rather than the radiation. Beyond 1.5 km the risk would have been much reduced.

To the 103 000 deaths from the blast or acute radiation exposure have since been added those due to radiation induced cancers and leukaemia, which amounted to some 400 within 30 years, and which may ultimately reach about 550. (Some 93,000 exposed survivors are still being monitored.)

Teratogenic effects on foetuses was severe among those heavily exposed, resulting in birth deformities and stillbirths over the next 9 months. 



(9) Elect of Nine

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(18) Knight of the Pelican and Eagle Sovereign Prince Rose Croix of Heredom
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(25) Knight of the Brazen Serpent
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(33) Grand Inspector General.
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