James Deardorff

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James Deardorff was a Research Professor Emeritus at Oregon State University, he held two BSC degrees in physics and meteorology, an MSc degree and PhD also in meteorology. He worked as a senior scientist and then as a research professor in the Department of Atmospheric Sciences.

His website Archived here http://tjresearch.info is dedicated to his studies and research into the origin of Christianity and his interest in the Talmud of Jmmanuel - a book Meier published translated from scrolls recounting the true teachings of Jmmanuel (aka Jesus).[1]

The website presents the results of 20 years analysis of the Talmud of Jmmanuel (TJ), showing, largely throughout a comparison with the Gospel of Matthew, that the TJ was the original source for that gospel.

About James Deardorff

My college years began as a freshman at Reed College in Portland, Oregon, in 1946-47, but then I switched to Stanford University, where I entered their Naval ROTC program, while majoring in physics. There I received the BS degree in 1950. With a year more of tuition covered by Naval ROTC, I attended UCLA in 1950-51, where I majored in meteorology, having had a strong interest in weather since early youth. So I received a second BS degree at UCLA, in meteorology. Then the Navy took me as an ensign, assigning me as a line officer aboard the USS Yancey (an AKA or "attack" cargo ship) for about two years, traveling between Oakland, CA, and Japan (Yokosuka and Sasebo), after which I transferred to Albuquerque, NM, to train in Special Weapons deployment and see the desert country. This led to a stint aboard the USS Lake Champlain (aircraft carrier) in the Mediterranean. After about 4 years in all I opted out, being a Ltjg then, so as to pursue a civilian research career within the field of meteorology, which interested me more and more.

The University of Washington was where I attended graduate school, in their Dept. of Meteorology, where I received the MS degree in 1956 and PhD in 1959. There I met my wife-to-be, Leona Winder, and we were married in 1956. After a couple years of post-graduate work there, in the field of air-sea interaction, I was accepted for a position at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, CO, in 1962. There I migrated into a study area involving laboratory and numerical modeling of turbulent thermal convection, and boundary-layer turbulence and diffusion. After a few years at NCAR I became a senior scientist, enjoying a successful, 16-year research career there. A list of the published research papers during this career is given in my #Curriculum Vitae. During this time our family had grown to five, with three lively daughters.

The Deardorff Family

Leona and I had become members of Mt. Calvary Lutheran Church in Boulder, singing regularly in their choir. (I had been raised as a nominal Presbyterian, but switched to my wife's religion, Lutheran, upon marriage.) This experience provided a valuable background to my later interest in the origins of Christianity.

After pressures at NCAR towards administrative duties, which I disliked, grew too strong, I took a position at Oregon State University in Corvallis, OR, in 1978, as a research professor in the Department of Atmospheric Sciences. A desire to return to the Pacific Northwest, with its proximity to the Cascade Mts. and to the Pacific Ocean, entered into this decision.

It was in Oregon that I became interested in the UFO phenomenon in the late 1970s, soon deciding that the evidence points conclusively towards its being a reality. Perhaps a previous interest in science fiction helped draw me in this direction. By 1985 I realized that my research interests had switched over irrevocably towards the UFO area and its implications for society; it was around this time that the first two of #My 5 or 6 UFO Sightings occurred. So in 1986 I made the decision to take early retirement from OSU. Writing papers, research grant proposals and attending to associated administrative duties no longer seemed as important as exploring the UFO phenomenon and trying to help bring it to public attention. However, by 1987 I had written #Three Papers dealing with the UFO subject in peer-reviewed journals. Yet, the Meier UFO-contactee case and the Talmud of Jmmanuel (TJ) absorbed most of my attention.

Since established scholars cannot treat the TJ seriously, and have no incentive to investigate it, I was motivated to turn myself into an independent New Testament scholar to the best of my ability. A course in New Testament Gospels at a community college in 1987 was a helpful beginning. However, from it I quickly learned that the basic conclusions that are taught as fact depend upon the degree of theological commitment of the instructor and of the writers of the textbooks selected for the course. For example, my instructor (a minister) taught that if two of the three Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark and Luke) agree upon an item or teaching, it is probably true, and if all three agree it must certainly be true. However, common sense instead indicates that if one Gospel writer made heavy use of the Gospel that came before his, and the third made heavy use of the two that came before his, as even the early church fathers testify, this guideline need not be true at all. So the rest of my education in New Testament scholarship came from self-learning through spending days on end in the Oregon State University library's book stacks, making frequent use of inter-library loans, and in visiting other university libraries. Occasional tips from OSU's Prof. Marcus Borg were also helpful in leading me to certain reference material. Later I took a course in New Testament Greek, which was useful in enabling me to better understand scholars' arguments within journal articles and textbooks. Still later I partook in Internet e-mail lists dedicated to various biblical topics for further exposure to both mainstream and alternative viewpoints.

My New Testament studies, plus independent study of the topic of reincarnation, caused me to leave the Lutheran church in the mid-1980s. My wife and I then switched to the Unitarian Universalist Fellowship of Corvallis. That church has no theological creeds to recite, and their tradition of tolerance allows a wide range of personal beliefs within their members. I was even allowed to give a couple of guest sermons -- one on reincarnation and one on the UFO phenomenon, in 1986 and 1987, respectively.

My studies on the subject of reincarnation were prompted both by what Meier had learned from his contacting ETs, and by the TJ. At first I was surprised to find so much evidence supporting the reality of reincarnation, this being expressed either directly or indirectly in over a dozen books written just by MDs and PhDs. (These lent very little, if any, support to the Hindu concept of transmigration of the soul to other animals, nor does the TJ.) There are studies of very young children who at times spontaneously spoke of their past lives to sufficient extent that the past-life family could be identified beyond doubt -- some 1500 of these cases are in the records of the late Dr. Ian Stevenson, and still others within the files of other researchers. Then there are tens of thousands of past-life descriptions supplied by patients who underwent hypno-regression therapy, and some of these have received definite confirmation, although the past-life therapists' interest was usually more in healing the patient than in trying to verify reincarnation. There are other cases of adults experiencing occasional past-life flashbacks spontaneously, and much documentation of near-death experiences, which themselves are consistent with the soul or spirit surviving death. See my short bibliography on these topics. After much reading and study of these in the 1980s, the TJ's teachings on reincarnation appeared quite factual and credible to me.

By 1990 I had learned enough about the Meier contactee case, the TJ and New Testament scholarship to write a book about the Talmud of Jmmanuel, pointing out the several hundred reasons either supportive of or consistent with the TJ being genuine and the Gospel of Matthew having derived from the TJ, rather than vice versa. It is called Celestial Teachings: The Emergence of the True Testament of Jmmanuel (Jesus), (Wildflower Press); however it went out of print around 2002. Its publisher was Dr. Brian Crissey of Granite Publishing and Wildflower Press, who also published the TJ's first three editions in English, in 1992, 1996 and 2001. The German text of the TJ is printed on facing pages, because Meier has insisted upon this format for any translation in order to better maintain the quality of the latter.

Because the TJ points to terrible falsehoods within Christianity and some within Judaism also, it and my book, Celestial Teachings, could only be distributed primarily within New Age bookstores, which scholars of course do not frequent. So in order to make the TJ's solutions for long outstanding, but not heretical, problems of New Testament scholarship available to open-minded scholars, I wrote The Problems of New Testament Gospel Origins, which Mellen Press in Lewiston, NY, (actually Mellen Research University Press) published in 1992. In it I avoided any mention of the Meier UFO contactee case and the TJ's major heresies in order that scholars not have those particular excuses for ignoring the book. However, in it I did make one brief reference to the TJ and to Celestial Teachings to let the serious reader know that most of the basic ideas did not stem from me.

I also wished to make the TJ's solutions to outstanding New Testament problems that do involve great heresies for Christianity available to the open-minded non-Christian scholar. So I wrote a third book, Jesus in India: A Reexamination of Jesus' Asian Traditions in the Light of Evidence Supporting Reincarnation. I was fortunate to find a publisher for it -- International Scholars Publications of Bethesda, MD, in 1994, later taken over by University Press of America, an imprint of Rowland & Littlefield Publishers.

More recently, much of my time has been devoted towards working on this website, which I hope you find informative and enlightening.

Curriculum Vitae

Vital Statistics

Born: 28 August 1928, Seattle, Washington
Present Position: Professor Emeritus
Department of Atmospheric Sciences
(College of Oceanic and Atmospheric Sciences)
Oregon State University
Corvallis, Oregon 97331
E-mail address: deardorj@proaxis.com


(1942-1946) - Lincoln High School, Portland, OR
B.S. (1950) - Physics, Stanford University
B.S. (2nd) (1951) - Meteorology, University of California at Los Angeles
M.S. (1956) - Meteorology, University of Washington
Ph.D. (1959) - Meteorology, University of Washington

Professional Employment

1951-1955: Line Officer; Special Weapons Electrical Officer, U.S. Navy
1955-1958: Research and Teaching Assistant, University of Washington
1958-1959: Acting Instructor, Meteorology, University of Washington
1959-1962: Senior Scientist, Air-Sea Interface, University of Washington
1962-1978: Senior Scientist, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado
1974-1978: Head, Small Scale Analysis and Prediction Project, National Center for Atmospheric Research
1978-1986: Research Professor, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Oregon State University
1986-: Professor Emeritus, Oregon State University

Other Professional Employment

1966-1967: One year at University of Washington, teaching meteorology
1970-1971: Six-month sabbatical at UCLA working on boundary-layer parameterization
1973-1974: Seven month leave of absence at University of Stockholm, Sweden (International Meteorological Institute) to work on parameterization of effects of scattered cumulus clouds on the subcloud layer
1980-1983: Co-editor (one of several), Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences
1982-1987: Assoc. Editor, Boundary-Layer Meteorology

Professional Affiliations, Honors or Awards

1971 - Editorial Award, American Meteorological Society
1972 - Publications Award, National Center for Atmospheric Research
1973 - Elected a Fellow of the American Meteorological Society
1974 - Second Half-Century Award for furthering "our understanding of turbulent processes in the planetary boundary layer through analytical studies and highly original numerical and laboratory experiments," American Meteorological Society
1978 - Rossby Research Medal, American Meteorological Society.
1986 - Was elected a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science

Publications in Reviewed Literature

  • 1958: The average slope of the surface wind, J. Meteor., 15, 334-335.
  • 1958: Vertical distribution of wind speed, temperature and humidity above a water surface, J. Marine Res. 17, 141-157 (R.G. Fleagle, J.W. Deardorff, and F.J. Badgley).
  • 1961: On the direction and divergence of the small-scale turbulent heat flux, J. Meteor. 18, 540-548.
  • 1961: Evaporation reduction by natural surface films, J. Geophys. Res. 66, 3613-3614.
  • 1961: Local evaporation from a smooth water surface, J. Geophys. Res. 66, 529-534.
  • 1962: Satellite cloud photos and large-scale vertical motion, J. Appl. Meteor. 2, 173-175.
  • 1963: On the stability of viscous plane Couette flow, J. Fluid Mech. 15, 623-631.
  • 1964: A numerical study of two-dimensional parallel-plate convection, J. Atmos. Sci. 21, 419-438.
  • 1965: Gravitational instability between horizontal plates with shear, Phys. Fluids 8, 1027-1030.
  • 1965: A numerical study of pseudo three-dimensional parallel-plate convection, J. Fluid Mech. 22, 419-435.
  • 1965: The effect of two-dimensionality on the suppression of thermal turbulence, J. Fluid Mech. 23, 337-353 (J.W. Deardorff and G.E. Willis).
  • 1965: Measurements on the development of thermal turbulence in air between horizontal plates, Phys. Fluids, 8, 2225-2229 (G.E. Willis and J.W. Deardorff).
  • 1966: The countergradient heat flux in the lower atmosphere and in the laboratory, J. Atmos. Sci. 23, 503-506.
  • 1967: Investigation of turbulent thermal convection between horizontal plates, J. Fluid Mech. 28, 675-704 (J.W. Deardorff and G.E. Willis).
  • 1967: Development of short-period temperature fluctuations in thermal convection, Phys. Fluids, 10, 931-937 (G.E. Willis and J.W. Deardorff).
  • 1967: Empirical dependence of the eddy coefficient for heat upon stability above the lowest 50m, J. Appl. Meteor. 6, 631-643.
  • 1967: The free-convection temperature profile, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 93, 166-175 (J.W. Deardorff and G.E. Willis).
  • 1967: Comment on paper by G.E. Harbeck, Jr., 'A note concerning the eddy transfer coefficients of momentum and water vapor under near-adiabatic conditions,'Water Resources Res. 3, 909-910.
  • 1967: Confirmation and renumbering of the discrete heat flux transitions of Malkus, Phys. Fluids, 10, 1861-1866 (G.E. Willis and J.W. Deardorff).
  • 1967: Aerodynamic theory of wave growth with constant wave steepness, J. Oceanog. Soc. Japan 23, 12-30.
  • 1968: Dependence of air-sea transfer coefficients on bulk stability, J. Geophys. Res. 73, 2549-2557.
  • 1968: Examination of numerically calculated heat fluxes for evidence of a supercritical transition, Phys. Fluids, 11, 1254-1256.
  • 1968: On the distinction between 'total' heat flux and eddy heat flux, J. Atmos. Sci. 25, 521-522 (J.W. Deardorff and J.A. Businger).
  • 1969: Laboratory investigation of non-steady penetrative convection, J. Fluid Mech. 35, 7-31 (J.W. Deardorff, G.E. Willis, and D.K. Lilly).
  • 1969: Numerical study of heat transport by internal gravity waves above a growing unstable layer, Phys. Fluids Suppl. II 184-194.
  • 1969: Similarity principles for numerical integrations of neutral barotropic planetary boundary layers and channel flows, J. Atmos. Sci. 26, 763-767.
  • 1970: A numerical study of three-dimensional turbulent channel flow at large Reynolds numbers, J. Fluid Mech. 41, 453-480.
  • 1970: Convective velocity and temperature scales for the unstable planetary boundary layer and for Rayleigh convection, J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 1211-1213.
  • 1970: Lagrangian statistics from numerically integrated shear flow, Phys. Fluids 13, 584-595 (J.W. Deardorff and R.L. Peskin).
  • 1970: The oscillatory motions of Rayleigh convection, J. Fluid Mech. 44, 661-672 (G.E. Willis and J.W. Deardorff).
  • 1970: Discussion of paper by V.H. Regener and L. Aldaz, 'Turbulent transport near the ground as determined from measurements of the ozone gradient,' J. Geophys Res. 75, 4184-4186.
  • 1970: A three-dimensional numerical investigation of the idealized planetary boundary layer, Geophys. Fluid Dynamics l, 377-410.
  • 1970: Preliminary results from numerical integrations of the unstable planetary boundary layer, J. Atmos. Sci. 27, 1211-1213.
  • 1970: A forum for post-clarification of discussions at AMS meetings? (Letter to the Editor), Bulletin, Amer. Meteor. Soc. 51, 435.
  • 1971: On the magnitude of the subgrid scale eddy coefficient, J. Comp. Phys. 7, 120-133.
  • 1971: Comments on 'Observational studies in the atmospheric boundary layer' by R.H. Clarke, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 97, 760-761.
  • 1972: Parameterization of the planetary boundary layer for use in general circulation models, Mon. Wea. Rev. 100, 93-106.
  • 1972: Roll-diameter dependence in Rayleigh convection and its effect upon the heat flux, J. Fluid Mech. 59, 351-357 (G.E. Willis, J.W. Deardorff, and R.C.J. Somerville).
  • 1972: Numerical investigation of neutral and unstable planetary boundary layers, J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 91-115.
  • 1972: Theoretical expression for the countergradient vertical heat flux, J. Geophys. Res. 77, 5900-5904.
  • 1972: Comments on 'A comparison of circulations in transverse and longitudinal planes in an unstable planetary boundary layer' by J.K. Angell, J. Atmos. Sci. 29, 1394-1395.
  • 1972: Computer methods for simulation of multidimensional, nonlinear subsonic, incompressible flow, J. Heat Transfer 94, 337-346 (D.G. Fox and J.W. Deardorff).
  • 1973: Note on a paper by D.R. Caldwell, C.W. Van Atta and K.N. Helland (concerning a laboratory study of the Ekman layer), Geophys. Fluid Dynamics 4, 293-295.
  • 1973: The use of subgrid transport equations in a three-dimensional model of atmospheric turbulence, J. Fluid Eng. 95, 429-438.
  • 1973: An explanation of anomalously large Reynolds stresses within the convective planetary boundary layer, J. Atmos. Sci. 30, 1070-1076.
  • 1974: Differences between eddy coefficients for instantaneous and continuous vertical diffusion into the neutral surface layer, Boundary-Layer Meteor. 5, 451-457.
  • 1974: Computer and laboratory modeling of the vertical diffusion of non-buoyant particles in a mixed layer, Advances in Geophysics 18B, 187-200 (J.W. Deardorff and G.E. Willis).
  • 1974: Comment on a paper by A.K. Betts, 'Non-precipitating cumulus convection and its parameterization,'Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. l00, 122-123 (J.W. Deardorff, G.E. Willis, and D.K. Lilly).
  • 1974: Stability functions for the boundary layer resistance laws based upon observed boundary layer height, J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1324-1325 (J.W. Melgarejo and J.W. Deardorff).
  • 1974: Three-dimensional numerical study of the height and mean structure of a heated planetary boundary layer, Boundary-Layer Meteor. 7, 81-106.
  • 1974: Three-dimensional study of turbulence in an entraining mixed layer, Boundary-Layer Meteor. 7, 199-226.
  • 1974: Similarity theory for the planetary boundary layer of time-dependent height, J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1449-1452 (S.S. Zilitinkevich and J.W. Deardorff).
  • 1974: A laboratory model of the unstable planetary boundary layer, J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1297-1307 (G.E. Willis and J.W. Deardorff).
  • 1974: Reply (to Pasquill and Smith), Boundary-Layer Meteor. 7, 229-230.
  • 1975: Comments on 'On the interaction between the subcloud and cloud layers in tropical regions' by Y. Ogura and H.-R. Cho, J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 2363-2364.
  • 1975: A parameterization of diffusion into the mixed layer, J. Appl. Meteor. 14, 1451-1458 (J.W. Deardorff and G.E. Willis).
  • 1975: Reply (to Arya and Wyngaard (1974)), J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 840 (S.S. Zilitinkevich and J. W. Deardorff).
  • 1975: Revision to 'Stability functions for the boundary-layer resistance laws', J. Atmos. Sci. 32, 837-839 (J.W. Melgarejo and J.W. Deardorff).
  • 1976: Usefulness of liquid-water potential temperature in a shallow-cloud model,J. Appl. Meteor. 1, 98-102.
  • 1976: On the entrainment rate of a stratocumulus-topped mixed layer, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 102, 563-582.
  • 1976: Discussion of 'Thermals over the sea and gull flight behavior' by A.H. Woodcock, Boundary-Layer Meteor. 10, 241-246.
  • 1976: Island wind shadows observed by satellite and radar, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 57, 1241-1242.
  • 1976: A laboratory model of diffusion into the convective planetary boundary layer Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 102, 427-445 (G.E. Willis and J.W. Deardorff).
  • 1976: On the use of Taylor's translation hypothesis for diffusion in the mixed layer, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 102, 817-822 (G.E. Willis and J.W. Deardorff).
  • 1977: Subgrid-scale condensation in models of nonprecipitating clouds, J. Atmos. Sci. 34, 345-355 (G. Sommeria and J.W. Deardorff).
  • 1977: A parameterization of ground-surface moisture content for use in atmospheric prediction models, J. Appl. Meteor. 16, 1182-1185.
  • 1977: Comments on 'The effect of variable surface albedo on the atmospheric circulation in desert regions.' J. Appl. Meteor. 17, 560 (Sherwood B. Idso and J.W. Deardorff).
  • 1977: Workshop on stability classification schemes and sigma curves, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 58, 1305-1309 (S.R. Hanna, G.A. Briggs, J.W. Deardorff, B.A. Egan, F.A. Gifford, F. Pasquill).
  • 1978: Efficient prediction of ground surface temperature and moisture with inclusion of a layer of vegetation, J. Geophys. Res. 83, 1889-1903.
  • 1978: A laboratory study of dispersion from an elevated source within a modeled convective planetary boundary layer, Atmos. Environ. 12, 1305-1311 (G.E. Willis and J.W. Deardorff).
  • 1978: Reply to Panofsky, Atmos. Envir. 12, 2036 (J.W. Deardorff and G.E. Willis).
  • 1978: Closure of second- and third-moment rate equations for diffusion in homogeneous turbulence, Phys. of Fluids, 21, 525-530.
  • 1978: Summary of recommendations made by the AMS Workshop on Stability Classification Schemes and Sigma Curves, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 59, 1025-1033 (J.R. Hanna, G.A. Briggs, J.W. Deardorff, B.A. Egan, F.A. Giffordand F. Pasquill).
  • 1979: Prediction of mixed layer entrainment for realistic capping inversion structure, J. Atmos. Sci. 36, 424-436.
  • 1979: Laboratory observations of turbulent penetrative-convection planforms, J. Geophys. Res. 84, 295-302, (G.E. Willis and J.W. Deardorff).
  • 1980: Cloudtop entrainment instability, J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 131-147.
  • 1980: Comments on 'Marine stratocumulus convection. Part 1: Governing equations and horizontally homogeneous solutions,' J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 481-482 (J.W. Deardorff and J. Businger).
  • 1980: The boundary-layer growth equations with Reynolds averaging, J. Atmos. Sci. 37, 1405-1409 (J.W. Deardorff and E.W. Peterson).
  • 1980: Stratocumulus-capped mixed layers derived from a three-dimensional model, Bound.-Layer Meteor. 18, 495-527.
  • 1980: Laboratory studies of the entrainment zone of a convectively mixed layer, J. Fluid Mech. 100, 41-64 (J.W. Deardorff, G.E. Willis, and B.H. Stockton).
  • 1980: Comments on 'A numerical investigation of mixed-layer dynamics.' J. Phys. Oceanogr. 10, 1695-1696.
  • 1981: A laboratory model of dispersion from a source in the middle of the convectively mixed layer, Atmos. Environ. 15, 109-117 (G.E. Willis and J.W. Deardorff).
  • 1981: On the distribution of mean radiative cooling at the top of a stratocumulus- capped mixed layer, Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 107, 191-202.
  • 1981: Further considerations on the Reynolds average of the kinematic boundary condition. J. Atmos. Sci. 38, 659-661.
  • 1982: Dependence of mixed-layer entrainment on shear stress and velocity jump, J. Fluid Mech. 115, 123-149 (J.W. Deardorff and G.E. Willis).
  • 1982: Ground-level concentrations due to fumigation into an entraining mixed layer. Atmos. Environ. 16, 1159-1170 (J.W. Deardorff and G.E. Willis).
  • 1982: Investigation of the frozen-turbulence hypothesis for temperature spectra in a convectively mixed layer. Phy. Fluids 25, 21-28 (J.W. Deardorff and G.E. Willis).
  • 1982: Numerical study of terrain-induced mesoscale motions in a mixed layer. J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 2464-2476 (Y.-J. Han, K. Ueyoshi and J.W. Deardorff).
  • 1982: A numerical simulation of an atmospheric vortex street. Tellus 34, 555-556 (P.H. Ruscher and J.W. Deardorff).
  • 1982: On the dichotomy in theoretical treatments of the atmospheric boundary layer J. Atmos. Sci. 39, 2096-2098 (J.W. Deardorff and L. Mahrt).
  • 1982: Further considerations on modeling the sea breeze with a mixed-layer model. Mon. Wea. Rev. 110, 757-765. (R.A. Anthes, D. Keyser and J.W. Deardorff).
  • 1983: Comment on 'A potential flow model of turbulence caused by breaking surface waves'. J. Geophys. Res. 88, 2710.
  • 1983: Authors' reply to comments on ground-level concentrations due to fumigation Atmos. Environ. 17, 1030-1032 (J.W. Deardorff and G.E. Willis).
  • 1983: A multi-limit mixed-layer entrainment formulation. J. Phys. Oceanog. 13, 988-1002.
  • 1983: Comments on 'The daytime planetary boundary layer; a new interpretation of Wangara'. Quart. J. Roy. Met. Soc. 109, 677-681.
  • 1983: On plume rise within a convective boundary layer, Atmos. Environ. 17, 2435-2447 (G.E. Willis and J.W. Deardorff).
  • 1983: Comments on 'A diagnostic model for estimating winds at potential sites for wind turbines'. J. Climate and Appl. Meteor. 22, 1312 (J.W. Deardorff and Y.-J. Han).
  • 1984: On the use of an annulus to study mixed-layer entrainment. J. Fluid Mech. 142, 97-120 (J.W. Deardorff and S.-C. Yoon).
  • 1984: Groundlevel concentration fluctuations from a buoyant and a non-buoyant source within a laboratory convectively mixed layer. Atmos. Environ. 18, 1297-1309 (J.W. Deardorff and G.E. Willis).
  • 1984: Numerical study of terrain-induced mesoscale motions and hydrostatic form drag in a heated, growing mixed layer. J. Atmos. Sci. 41, 1420-1441 (J.W.Deardorff, K. Ueyoshi, and Y.-J. Han).
  • 1985: Further results from a laboratory model of the convective planetary boundary layer. Boundary-Layer Meteor. 32, 205-236.
  • 1985: Sub-grid-scale turbulence modeling. In Adv. in Geophys. 28B, 337-343.
  • 1985: Comments on 'Transilient turbulence theory, Part I'. J. Atmos. Sci. 42, 2069.
  • 1985: Laboratory experiments on diffusion: The use of convective mixed-layer scaling, J. Climate and Appl. Meteor. 24, 1143-1151.
  • 1985: Authors' reply to 'Ground-level concentration fluctuations from a buoyant and a non-buoyant source...'. Atmos. Envir. 18, 1212-1213.
  • 1985: Book Review of Large-Eddy Simulation: Guidelines for its Applications to Planetary Boundary Layer Research, J.C. Wyngaard, ed., Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 66 (Dec).
  • 1986: Comments on 'Radiative cooling near the top of a cloudy mixed layer,' Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. 112, 273-275.
  • 1987: Buoyant plume dispersion and inversion entrapment in and above a laboratory mixed layer. Atmos. Envir. 21, 1725-1735 (G.E. Willis and J.W. Deardorff).
  • 1987: Turbulence within a baroclinic laboratory mixed layer above a sloping surface, J. Atmos. Sci. 44, 772-778 (with G.E. Willis).

Other Publications and Reports

  • 1973: Three-dimensional numerical modeling of the planetary boundary layer, in Workshop on Micrometeorology (Duane A. Haugen, editor), American Meteorol. Society, Boston, 14-18 August, Science Press, 277-311.
  • 1974: Rate of growth of the nocturnal boundary layer, in Proc. of Symposium on Air Pollution, Turbulence and Diffusion, December 1971, Las Cruces, New Mexico (H.W. Church and R.E. Luna, editors), 183-190.
  • 1974: Computer and laboratory modeling of the vertical diffusion of non-buoyant particles in a mixed layer, in Turbulent Diffusion in Environment Pollution (R.N. Frenkiel and R.E. Munn, editors), Academic Press, New York/London (J.W. Deardorff and G.E. Willis).
  • 1974: Physical modeling of diffusion in the mixed layer, in Proc. of Symposium on Atmospheric Diffusion and Air Pollution, American Meteorological Society, Santa Barbara, California, 9-13 September (J.W. Deardorff and G.E. Willis).
  • 1974: Means by which the planetary boundary layer affects the free troposphere, in Subsynoptic Extratropical Weather Systems: Observations, Analysis, Modeling and Prediction, Vol. II, Proc. ASP/SSAPP Summer Colloquium, NCAR, Boulder, Colorado, 670-682.
  • 1975: The development of boundary-layer turbulence models for use in studying the severe storm environment, in Open Sesame, Proc. of Mtg. at Boulder, 4-6 September (D.K. Lilly, editor) NOAA/ERL, Boulder, Colorado, 251-264.
  • 1975: Laboratory simulation of the convective planetary boundary layer, in Atmospheric Technology 7, National Center for Atmos. Research, 30-86 (G.E. Willis and J.W. Deardorff).
  • 1975: Boundary layer data from a numerical integration in three dimensions; manuscript available from authors (J.W. Deardorff and Margaret Drake).
  • 1976: Clear and cloud-capped mixed layers: their structure and growth, numerical simulation, and parameterization. In Proc. of the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts Seminar Series: Treatment of the Boundary Layer in Numerical Weather Prediction, 6-10 September, Bracknell, England.
  • 1976: Neglect of downstream diffusion--how good an assumption for the daytime mixed layer? Preprints, American Meteorological Society Third Symposium on Atmospheric Turbulence, Diffusion and Air Quality, Raleigh, North Carolina, 19-22 October, 255-258 (J.W. Deardorff and G.E. Willis).
  • 1976: Visual observations of horizontal planforms of penetrative convection paper for Third Symposium on Atmospheric Tubulence, Diffusion and Air Quality, Raleigh, North Carolina, 19-22 October, 9-12 (G.E. Willis and J.W. Deardorff).
  • 1978: Different approaches toward predicting pollutant dispersion in the boundary layer, and their advantages and disadvantages, in Symp. on Boundary Layer Physics Applied to Specific Problems of Air Pollution. Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (S.M.H.I), Norrköping, Sweden, 19-23 June.
  • 1980: Progress in understanding entrainment at the top of a mixed layer, in Workshop on the Planetary Boundary Layer, Boulder, Colorado, 14-18 August, 1978, American Meteorological Society, Boston, Massachusetts (J.C. Wyngaard, editor), 36-66.
  • 1981: How time dependence and variable Froude number can explain more rapid entrainment of the two-layer system in annulus experiments, in Third Symp. on Turbulent Shear Flows, University of California, Davis, September 9-11, 12.1-12.4.
  • 1981: Modeling fumigation in a laboratory mixed layer, in Fifth Symp. on Turbulence, Diffusion and Air Pollution, Atlanta, Georgia, March 9-13, American Meteorological Society, 157-158.
  • 1982: Simulation of terrain effects using a mesoscale mixed-layer model, in Proc. 10th IMACS World Congress on Systems Simulation and Scientific Computation, Montreal, Canada, August 8-13, 195-196.
  • 1983: Concentration fluctuations within buoyant and non-buoyant laboratory plumes, in Sixth Symp. on Turbulence and Diffusion, Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, March 22-25, 237-240.
  • 1983: Dependence of laboratory mixed-layer entrainment rates upon interfacial turbulence and stability, in Sixth Symp. on Turbulence and Diffusion, Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, March 22-25, 321-324.
  • 1984: Upstream diffusion in the convective boundary layer with weak or zero mean wind, in Fourth Joint Conf. on Applications of Air Pollution Meteorology Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, October 16-19, 4-7.
  • 1985: Review of "Large-Eddy Simulation: Guidelines for its application to planetary boundary layer research," J.C. Wyngaard, ed., Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 66, 1552.
  • 1987: Notice of 1986 retirement. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 68 (Oct.), 1295.
  • 1988: Concentration fluctuations within a laboratory convectively mixed layer,in Lectures in Air Pollution Modeling, 357-384 (Chap. 8), A. Venkatram and J.C.Wyngaard, eds.; Boston, Amer. Meteor. Soc. (with G.E. Willis).
  • 1986: Possible extraterrestrial strategy for Earth. Quart. J. Roy. Astron. Soc. 27, 94-101.
  • 1987: Examination of the embargo hypothesis as an explanation for the Great Silence. J. British Interplanetary Soc. 40, 373-379.
  • 1987: Extraterrestrial Communications. J. Communication 37, 181-184.
  • 1990: Celestial Teachings: Emergence of the True Testament of Jmmanuel (Jesus).Mill Spring, NC: Wild Flower Press. 1-800-366-0264.
  • 1992: The Problems of New Testament Gospel Origins. Lewiston, NY: Mellen Press (Mellen University Research Press; see www.mellenpress.com).
  • 1994: Jesus in India: A Reexamination of Jesus' Asian Traditions in the Light of Evidence Supporting Reincarnation.Bethesda, MD: International Scholars Publications.
  • 2001: Opinions and comments on W.C. Levengood and N.P. Talbott (1999) 'Dispersion of energies in worldwide crop formations,' Physiologia Plantarum 111, 125.
  • 2005: Inflation-theory implications for extraterrestrial visitation, J. British Interplanetary Soc. 58, 43-50. (J. Deardorff, B. Haisch, B. Maccabee and H.E. Puthoff)

My 5 or 6 UFO Sightings

Sighting 1. It was on June 9, 1986 —a clear day. I was in my Oregon State University office (in Stag Hall) finishing off a brown-bag lunch and gazing out the east-facing window when I spied what looked like a dark, black balloon slowly passing by, from N.E. southward. It had a roughly spherical shape. At its closest it looked like it was only a few blocks away and only some 1000 feet up. It caught my attention right away as it seemed larger than any toy balloon; it was certainly no weather balloon or hot-air balloon, as it carried no suspended payload. I estimated that its width subtended an angle roughly equal to 3 mm at arm's length, or about 1/3 the angular width of the moon. I estimated its elevation angle to lie between 30 and 45 degrees. It soon became obscured behind trees and buildings.

Deardorff my UFO1.jpg

Its first suspicious feature was its dark black color, without disclosing any shiny black that would show a highlight. And I didn't know of any black balloons like that.

I noticed a second suspicious feature as it neared its closest approach, when its elevation angle was around 40 degrees. It had tiny points of glitter scattered all over its upper half, which reflected the sunlight brightly, but none on its lower half. The above rendering cannot do justice to the brightness of the glitters. I couldn't think of any scientific experiment or other reason why any balloon would be so decorated.

Its third suspicious feature, which didn't strike me until later, was that it was moving along at apparently constant altitude. Ordinary balloons we see down low either are buoyant and in the process of rising or just the opposite and sinking. A nearly neutrally-buoyant balloon is a rarity, requiring extra skill in construction, adjustment or operation, and it will still rise up and down with the turbulent air currents, which this object didn't do, and wouldn't survive long before entering a convective downdraft and ripping open against a tree, building or the ground.

A fourth suspicious feature is that the "balloon" wasn't rotating about any arbitrary axis, as an ordinary non-ballasted balloon would likely have been doing within a turbulent atmosphere.

I did take time out from gawking at it long enough to run down the corridor from my second-floor office, looking to see if anyone was around to yell to as a witness. No one was, and even in the departmental office no one was around, which was rather rare but happened sometimes during noontime lunch hour. Also, I noted that the wind direction (from the NNE) was about the same as the direction of motion of the balloon-like object. So I didn't later go around informing others of this UFO sighting, knowing for that reason it would be assumed to have been some sort of man-made balloon. Yet I regarded it as a UFO because of its suspicious features, especially the upper-half glitters. I kept my eyes and ears open for any newspaper, radio or TV reports of others having seen it, but heard nothing about it.

Sighting 2. The very next afternoon (June 10th, 1986) around 5 p.m., as I was riding my bicycle southwards from campus towards home (on 26th St.), I couldn't help but notice an aerial object that resembled a high-flying kite (polygonal with 5 or 6 edges) except that it had a "tail" which displayed an alternating bright irridescent ruby red color and a gray-black color. It appeared to be a quarter mile away or so, about 35 degrees above the horizon, and drifting from NW to SE, which again was about the direction the breeze on that clear day would have carried a floating object. Thus it resembled a kite that had broken loose from its string—I looked hard for any such string and didn't see any. However, a kite without its string would have come down pretty quickly, but this object retreated towards the tree line to the south, without apparent descent, faster than I could bicycle towards it. Moreover, the brilliant "tail" was oriented along the direction a kite string would have been directed—downwards and upwind, rather than trailing downwind behind the kite. The sighting lasted for about 4 minutes, as I bicycled slowly along 26th St. taking time to look at it carefully.

Deardorff my UFO2.jpg

The black dots in the crude picture above indicate its continued direction of movement.

I continued south across Philomath Blvd. bicycling faster and then southward along Brooklane Ave., until near the final curve of Brooklane I lost sight of it after looking back up from the road. It may have been obscured by nearby trees, though I thought I should have espied it a while longer before the trees would obscure it. When on 26th St. I had again looked in vain for any pedestrians or persons in stopped cars whose attention I might direct towards the object, but there were none around.

I had to place this in the UFO category because the object didn't behave the way a kite would have yet didn't resemble anything else, and because of the brilliance of its dazzling color. Also, the fact that it occurred only a day after my first UFO sighting reinforced the idea that it belonged in the same category of UFO. Again I did not attempt to convince any of my atmospheric-science colleagues that I had seen a UFO, as I had already given a UFO talk within the department, and had learned by this time of the rationales that many scientists and ufologists alike employ to explain away UFO sightings whenever at all possible. I knew that the broken-string kite hypothesis would be seized upon and the disparities would be ignored or dismissed.

Sighting 3. This occurred during a clear August evening around 1990 when my wife and I were tenting overnight on a campground along the south fork of the Willamette River, on the west slope of the Cascades (between Eugene and Crater Lake). We were taking a stroll along a dirt road around 9 p.m., at dusk, when we spotted a bright yellowish-white satellite-like object moving steadily and silently from south to north. It was much brighter than an airplane or a satellite either one, however, and appeared to be lower down than a satellite. We could see it through the treetops for about a minute -- much longer than any meteor sighting would last. It was as bright when viewed from the rear as it had been when viewed from the front -- some 5 times or so as bright as Venus. Again, I did not report this to my colleagues or to any UFO organization because the object did not execute any UFO-like maneuvers, and would be explained away as a satellite. However, I have seen too many satellites to think it was one, and it was not leaving any trail of sparks or debris behind as a reentering satellite would.

Sighting 4. My brother, when he lived on the north side of Corvallis, called me a couple times about an unusually bright but silent "airplane" he had seen on several nights, around 10 p.m. This was in July of 1992 or 1993. The "airplane" appeared to the east of his residence, moving from north to south. Both its brilliant white light and lack of any noise alerted him to its unusualness, plus the fact that it flew unusally low. So I arranged to meet with him on a following evening when we drove to the top of a nearby forested ridge to the east for a better view of it, and waited. Sure enough, shortly after 10 p.m. it came into sight in the north, on a track that would take it abreast of us on the east as it traveled on to the SSE. I focused my binoculars on it, and after it had approached nearly broadside, could notice how its bright white front light appeared to wrap around its nose for a distance of some 5% of the "plane's" length, but appeared to have a grill-like structure superimposed on it. Still, I was not quite certain of the uniqueness of these apparent features, due to the difficulty of holding the binoculars steady enough while tracking it.

If the object had wings, they didn't show up, which wouldn't have been too surprising considering the darkness and the fact that its flight path was low, only slightly higher than our own elevation. However, if it had been an airplane its navigational lights, at least the green one on the right, should have shown up, but did not.

However, just about when it was broadside to us, directly to the east, I was suddenly startled to notice through the binoculars that a tiny red-orange "pip" shot down from the craft for perhaps a hundred feet and then curved upwards before vanishing, having traced out a "J" shape in less than a second of time. Immediately after, a second "pip," this time yellow, zoomed upwards a similar distance from the craft and then curved down a bit before vanishing, just as quickly tracing out an inverted "J" figure.

Deardorff my UFO4.jpg
The above picturing is only suggestive, as the pips did not leave any trail of dots behind, and as the UFO craft moved along the locations of the two pips were left behind. Also, unlike in the depiction above, I could not visually quite discern a tail (or the tail) of the craft.

Unfortunately, my brother was not watching through his binoculars at these moments and missed the two pip events. Naturally I knew of no devices coming from any ordinary airplane that would behave in this manner, nor any motivation for any human deployment of any such devices. At its closest approach, the craft seemed to be about 1 or 1 1/2 miles away and at an elevation only slightly above our own, which was around 500 feet. But not even then could we hear any noise from it, even though we were on a quiet hillside miles north of the nearest city (Corvallis). We believe we sighted the same craft from a greater distance on a couple of subsequent nights, but didn't see it any more after that.

Again, however, neither of us reported this sighting to any UFO organization, believing it would be dismissed as an ordinary commercial airliner whose flight track for some reason took it unusually low in travelling from Portland to Eugene. Moreover, I checked the airline schedules, and there was a nightly plane from Portland to Eugene scheduled to arrive in Eugene around 10:30 p.m. Surely a UFO wouldn't show up on a regular schedule! The fact that an airliner shouldn't be flying that low, 30 miles north of the Eugene airport, would be shrugged off, and the "pips" I had seen just a 1000 feet or less above the ground would be ignored as aberrations.

For the other reasons mentioned, however, I had to place this sighting in the "for sure" UFO category. It then alerted me to the realization that UFOs in general often pass themselves off as other objects to those who do not get a close look or who do not listen to all the details of the witnesses' reports. In this manner the aliens, or UFO pilots, can alert those whose minds are open to the possibility of the alien presence that they are indeed here and well aware of us, while not shaking up those whose minds are unable to accept that likelihood. The UFO phenomenon is replete with cases of this nature, which to me says something about the level of ethics of the UFO aliens in charge. It thus appears that they wish to act as catalysts who then cause perceptive witnessing humans themselves to be the ones who try to inform their fellow humans as to what's going on and what mankind's position within the cosmos is -- Johnny-come-latelies.

Sighting 5. On June 12 of 1996 at 8:25a.m. I was in my back yard in Corvallis, OR, looking over a row of tomato plants. The skies were clear that morning, except for a few old contrails, and the sun was out. I happened to glance up towards the west for a fraction of a second and noticed what appeared to be a small airplane, but at first didn't think anything about it. However, a couple of seconds later I realized I didn't hear any airplane engine noise. Then I looked up at it carefully. It was moving steadily from north to south and appeared to be about a mile away. I couldn't see any wings or tail on it; it just had a cylindrical shape and was of a silvery color.

Deardorff my UFO5.jpg

It was at about 30 degrees elevation, and knowing that its wings then may not have shown up well, I looked for them intensely (with 20/20 vision as corrected by eyeglasses), but still couldn't see any. And there was definitely no indication of any characteristic tail shape, just the precise cylindrical shape from fore to aft. Most peculiar, there was a single vertical stripe along the center of the cylinder, making it resemble a narrow capsule, horizontally oriented. Its length was around ten times its width, and its length subtended an angle about equal to the width of my little finger at arm's length.

The sighting lasted around a minute, before the craft disappeared into the near-horizon haze to the southwest as it approached a tree line. I had considered running inside the house to grab a pair of binoculars, but decided that would take a bit too long, including time that would be needed to focus them, before it would be practically out of sight. My wife wasn't around to call upon as a witness, as she had already gone to her part-time job. I glanced up and down the street to see if any neighbors were outside to yell to, but they weren't.

The following summer I read over the Internet of the sighting of an object described the same as I have described it: as a capsule moving along like a small airplane, near the town of Monmouth, OR. It had been seen by a high-school aged student whose father reported the sighting.

Sighting 6. During early afternoon on the clear day of July 16th, 1998, I happened to be out in my front yard in Corvallis, OR, admiring the blueness of the sky due to lack of any field-burning smoke or slash-burning smoke or noticeable smog, and due also to a clear-weather high-pressure subsidence situation. There was scarcely any wind. When facing west I looked up to watch a plane go by nearly overhead, from N to S, at around 5000-6000 ft. While my head was still up, a fast-moving whitish object suddenly streaked into view, moving from nearly overhead towards the west. It seemed to be some 500 to 1000 ft. up when nearly overhead, but moved so fast that within about 1.5 seconds (1 1/2 sec.) it had already disappeared into the western horizon. When closest overhead its apparent angular length I estimate to have been about 2/3 of a little-finger width held at arm's length. It didn't make any noise or show any exhaust or lights.

Deardorff my UFO6.jpg

Its shape was sort of like a rocket with a pair of very short "wings" whose outer edges ran parallel to its body length, as I recall, as in the picture above. I estimate that its ratio of length to greatest width was about 4 to 1. It was of a "misty" white color, with the peculiarity of showing no darkness on its underside, which ought to have been shadowed from the sun. Nor did it exhibit any highlights of reflected sunlight. Yet the sky was clear. Its most striking aspect at the time was, in moving so fast, to have moved in a perfectly straight line -- no swooping, no "flapping of wings" or anything like that. So it didn't resemble a bird or a plane or a thistle seed. Nor did it resemble any "floater" in the eye, as I checked for that possibility immediately afterwards. It more resembled a stick drawing in chalk of a ski jumper stretched out horizontally and viewed from directly above or below.

It was out of sight so quickly that I of course had no chance to look for another witness to view it, or to go for a camera or binoculars. The sighting might fall into the category of UFO that has been called "rods;" by coincidence that very night I heard an interview of a "rods-type" UFO investigator on the Art Bell radio talk-show in which the description given seemed to come rather close to fitting what I had seen.

My earliest UFO event (most likely involving UFOs). In 1953 I was an ensign in the Navy, serving with a Special Weapons group aboard the aircraft carrier USS Lake Champlain (CV 39). We were operating in the Sea of Japan, in waters off of South Korea. It was in the evening of July 26th (I learned the precise date later) around 7 pm that general quarters was sounded, and we all went to our battle stations -- mine was below decks where our group had the duty of maintaining a few atomic weapons at the ready. We didn't know what was going on, until word was passed that the ship's radar had detected a lot of bogies (unidentified blips) nearby. We were all extremely apprehensive. I took a peek into the office of our group leader, Lt. Robinson, who had just gotten off the telephone, and saw him just quivering all over, a bundle of fear, in his swivel chair. Needless to say, that didn't improve our morale! I have never seen any such fright like that before or since, and this is what implanted the whole event firmly into my memory. However, nothing further happened, and around 10 or 11 pm the all-clear was sounded. I expected we'd be told the next day what had happened, but there was nary a word spoken about it then or later from the ship’s captain on down.

USS Lake Champlain (CV 39)

It wasn't until some 25 years later that I had learned enough about the UFO phenomenon to know that this is typical behavior when UFOs are involved. Those who knew or suspected that the bogies were UFOs apparently realized, or were told, not to speak about it to others, and so the silence spread. If the bogies had been North Korean aircraft, and if the carrier's fighter planes had engaged any of them, or had any of our aircraft been shot down, we certainly would then have heard about it. A few more years passed before I learned that, in a disproportionately large fraction of sightings, UFOs had been witnessed above nuclear missile sites and nuclear reactors (one of the latest books on this is by Robert Hastings, UFOs and Nukes: Extraordinary Encounters at Nuclear Weapons Sites, 2008). From then on I strongly suspected that this traumatic event involving the USS Lake Champlain, with its onboard nuclear arsenal, had been a UFO event.

It wasn't until September of 2008 that I came across the following information from a Navy chronology web site:

26 July
Hwangto-do Island drew anti-tank and machine gun fire from the enemy mainland, but experienced no damage.
As Task Force 77 replenished, a small number of bogies made non firing runs on spotting aircraft from the Force. The spotting aircraft made seven visual sightings, all unidentified. Later in the day from two to four possible jet bogies orbited at 20,000 feet 60 miles north of the Task Force, but departed before CAP could make contact.
About 100 bogies were reported by USS Lake Champlain (CVA 39) during the night northwest and southwest of Task Force 77. The bogies, in five different groups, were never contacted by VFN aircraft and did not close the Task Force.

VFN aircraft are carrier Navy planes equipped for nighttime operations. The last paragraph above, in bold face, is the relevant one. Task Force 77 included three other aircraft carriers.

From information supplied by Carl Feindt, I also learned that at the time a Jack Sauter had been an electronics technician who flew with one of the Lake Champlain's aircraft. He wrote:

The only threat to TF 77 occurred on 26 July 1953, the night before the truce was signed. Many bogies were seen closing on the force and we all went to general quarters. Aircraft, including one of ours [one of the Lake Champlain's], were launched, but whatever was out there disappeared before our planes got close.

I was glad to learn of this confirming information, and of the date of the event. Evidently the bogies, or UFOs, occurred in groups as large as 20. The carrier's aircraft could not make contact with the UFOs, nor did the latter "close" (approach too close to) the task force, which included CV 39. This is typical UFO behavior -- to scare those involved with dangerous weapons, and to let us know they are around and aware of our activities, while generally inflicting no violence against us. In December of 2010, I spoke with Jack Sauter over the telephone, and he confirmed that none of the bogies had been seen visually as far as he knew. The rumor he had heard, as to their possible explanation, was that it may have been a large swarm of Chinese bombers that approached from the west but then were ordered to turn around before approaching closer than some 20 miles from the Task Force. This is unlikely, however, as news of this could not have been kept suppressed.

Three Premium Papers

Possible extraterrestrial strategy for Earth. Quart. J. Royal Astron. Soc., 27, pp. 94-101 (1986).

The arguments are reviewed which hold that our Galaxy is nearly saturated with extraterrestrial life forms, that our existence requires in hindsight that they were and are benevolent toward us, and that our lack of detection of them or communications from them implies that an embargo is established against us to prevent any premature knowledge of them. An inconsistency is detected, in that any sudden lifting of the embargo in a manner obvious to the public would cause societal chaos and possibly touch off a nuclear exchange, while any communications received via radio telescope would likely be either quickly confiscated by government agencies and not revealed to the public, or heavily censored. The inconsistency is that the advanced civilization should be expected to have planned some other strategy, if it is actually benevolent, experienced and intelligent.
It follows that any embargo not involving alien force must be a leaky one designed to allow a gradual disclosure of the alien message and its gradual acceptance on the part of the general public over a very long time scale. A possible strategy for their accomplishing this is proposed.

Examination of the embargo hypothesis as an explanation for the Great Silence. J. British Interplanetary Soc., 40, pp. 373-379 (1987).

The embargo or quarantine hypothesis for explaining the 'Great Silence' is reviewed and found to be more plausible than the view that, at most, we might expect to receive radio messages from some distant star. The latter hypothesis is shown to be compatible with extraterrestrial technologies only a few hundred years in advance of our own, whereas the embargo hypothesis more reasonably infers that they should be tens of thousands of years in advance and in control of any contact with humanity.
Reasons why the embargo hypothesis has received insufficient attention are presented: they involve failure to allow for the application of both greatly advanced alien technology and high ethical values by maturing societies of extraterrestrial intelligence. The implication of the embargo hypothesis for space development is that planets already harbouring diverse biota are ethically off-limits for exploitive colonisation.

Extraterrestrial communications. J. Communication, 37, pp. 181-184 (1987).

No abstract; but summary is as follows:

So far, the search for alien intelligence, in its concentration upon a radio message from the stars, has neglected to search right here on Earth and examine the UFO phenomenon. The prevailing scientific rationale responsible for this breakdown in logic fails to take into account the embargo hypothesis and Clarke's third law, which holds that the actions of advanced extraterrestrials would likely seem to us to defy the laws of physics

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