This article is not an official FIGU publication.

Evolution: (lat. Evolvere = roll up) development. Every lifeform is included within the Natural Creative Law of development (Evolution). In spiritual, consciousness-related and in a material way. However every lifeform has its own specific evolution.

Evolution is also developing powers, force, abilities and skills that dont exist yet, and developing powers, force, abilities and skills that are already present, in either conscious-active or subconscious-passive slumbering form.[1]

Evolution is not necessarily guaranteed and must be worked at.

Evolution is not simply an accumulation of chance and chaos. It is in laws and recommendations, in the external storage banks and in our conscious memory, just as it is in the subconscious memory and in the countless forms of consciousness, unconsciousness and sub-consciousness, etc.

Everywhere, everything is well ordered. Natural Law and regulation and principles prevail.

An illustration included in a book by Wendelle Stevens called Message from the Pleiades.

Evolution Q&A

Q: Is there anything territorial about evolution as a principle, am I welcome?

A: Absolutely welcome, it comes from a thing as simple as the passing of time, the passing of time is not in dispute from any side, most agreeable. [show / hide]

Q: Why should we base our society on what is essentially a theory?

A: Evolution is not just a theory, it has great merit and is supported by facts e.g. passing of time, erosion, decomposition, deposition, sedimentation, social changes in society, developments etc., I mean take a look at a very old photo of a steam-engine on your smart phone.

Q: I don’t believe in what scientists say that we came from chimpanzees

A: This has turned into a bit of a misconception now, because scientists say that for atleast the last 389,000 thousand years we have been for all intents and purposes human. So for some reason the argument skips half a million years. We’re evolving as human beings, start from there.

Q: How does common descent fit in with Plejaren's shared ancestral claims?

A: You're referring to Common descent (Wikipedia), Evidence of common descent (Wikipedia) and Anatomical modernity (Wikipedia). Generally: The Plejaren claim that as we colonised Earth over thousands of years, we killed off the Neanderthal, where we once lived separately to them and in some cases mated with them, which is why today we have a small percentage of their DNA, aside having globalised the world several times.[citation needed] There were many big disasters, catastrophes and cataclysms over thousands of years, restarting civilisation from the ashes several times and in the midst of all that, we all introduced each other to all the different genetics of the world. On top of that there were times in history where the Plejaren mated with Earth humans, terrestrials had children with extraterrestrials, incidentally which is where the Bible stories come from apparently, some of these claims are mentioned in association with the personalities of Nokodemion, such as Jmmanuel who had an extraterrestrial father. It's easier to say we don't know, because we have not investigated the claims comparatively with the leading evidence, and we don't know enough about these areas of science to say it fits the evidence or doesn't, we don't claim to know definitively.

Q: Do you believe Billy Meier?

A: It's not like that. The Plejaren have put forward information and evidences through Billy Meier (or it's all Billy Meier, either way) and we have merely evaluated it, considered and weighed it up with known facts. It's interesting and unique and there are many explanations which surpass and solve various problems put forward by leading scientists and leading science is indecisive and later discover things which Billy said all along. So we don't believe anything, there are facts to consider.

Q: Have you found any errors, mistakes, anything wrong with the information?

A: No, however there are plenty of things that make sense but which we cannot prove, won't be able to in our lifetime at least, for future generations. Other cases where the substantiation put forward is far too complicated for us to solve and requires mainstream science teams to solve, but as it's seen as a hoax cult, won't be. Of what we have been able to check we have not found anything wrong with it, from a 'makes sense' perspective, just because something makes sense doesn't mean it's right, but we have checked what we can. There are only few scientists who have taken an interest and of them they have conducted some excellent investigations into the purely physical evidence, but few who have looked at the special arrangements such as the evolution history creationism belief compound and rapid history information, biological or the archaeological information perspectives etc. It's not had enough interest worldwide to flesh out yet, even if it did, it would take another 100 years, several revolutions, social and political upheaval before it were worked back into the education system.

Modern principles of evolution as taught in schools, because it began hundreds of years ago, is the best we have at the moment.

Q: What do you think about the flat earth theory?

A: There are more than a thousand different delusions and delusional-belief calibrations, as used for evolution purposes i.e. over the course of the consciousness evolution process. Billy in all his different Books it’s estimated, covers about a quarter of them, most he doesn’t bring up because he wants to leave the past and allow us to leave the past behind us now. No the flat earth theory is not at all shocking and we are neutral about it, just like we are neutral about many things, tolerant. We think the flat earth theory began in the 16th century or so, we have not checked.

We know about a theory that it generally takes about 100-500 years or so for any discovery to roll out, any, possibly and generally speaking may be rule, it may have even been defined as a phenomena. For example using this principle in about 300 years the Bigfoot or Sasquatch will probably have had its day, made its fuss, given up its controversy, been talked about and will be able to be spoken about. But we have already made this discovery today. It becomes interesting with myths, we have big sea monsters in our conversation history, but even to this day have not discovered anything colossal, big but not that big, but even if we did it would be immediately accepted because we've already had that 500 year warm up. In the same way, with extraterrestrials, we're expecting to encounter strict, dictatorial, belligerent highly organized humans, while on the other hand big green aliens or anything weird. It would only be shocking if extraterrestrials turned out to be really reasonable, modest, sensitive great fellow humans, because we're not expecting that at all. If they turned out to be crazy Egyptian mask wearers armed with lazer turrets then we're already sufficiently prepared for that, it would be accepted immediately. Getting a society prepared for a discovery, discovering it, accepting it, and it becoming common knowledge is complicated, many books have been written about it. Part of the reason Billy Meier has not been successful in terms of popularity is because it's the truth we are not interested in at the moment, and it's difficult to sell something like this. This is why those interested in FIGU literature generally agree that it's imperative that those in Government and public office are responsible, honest, informative, forthcoming and progressive, because it causes all sorts of problems for everyone all the way down the history if that privilege is abused.

Some readers in the past have prepared themselves for reading what the Plejaren extraterrestrials have explained about evolution, by having previously spoken with an atheist-agnostic scientist about evolution and listened to an atheist-agnostic comedian joke about evolution, before. This is for the reader to decide, FIGU has no specific recommendation about it, but doing so introduces the subject the way it has been established.


There are some misconceptions about Darwinism internally inside FIGU because in Contact Report 217 Quetzal explains that he was a fraud, however the concepts in Dawinism are still applicable. Darwinism is a theory of biological evolution developed by the English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809–1882) and others, stating that all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual's ability to compete, survive, and reproduce.

In 2018 in Contact Report 710 and Contact Report 711 it was mentioned that Charles Darwin filed the bones to make them look like the right match. Whether Darwin commited fraud or not doesn’t diminish natural selection and evolution, it only means humans are in contention, and only actually a small passage of history, not all the races and this doesn’t mean everything is wrong either. However there is quite a big gap between what has been discovered so far and what the Plejaren have discussed with Billy.

It’s sometimes stated that theories like Darwinism and Evolution are beliefs, they are not beliefs actually we are solidly certain these processes occur in nature. Mainstream science doesn’t know a great many missing links however, such as where the anatomically modern human DNA came from, apparently from the Plejarens mixing with terrestrials in ancient times, but science is not far off providing evidence for many such things as this link theory with extraterrestrials. Maybe Darwin changed the bones because it began to look extraterrestrial.

No absolutely not, Darwinism doesn’t explain why we age as rapidly as we do, see Ageing. Under Darwinism we should by this tech and social level be hitting the thousand year life expectancy by now, technically, but the Plejaren have been helping things along with impulses according to what they discussed with BEAM. Neither does it explain why there were few multicultural societies for a hundred thousand years or why we overpopulated in a century even a decade. The Plejaren are the only ones who explain these mysteries successfully and will be for a very long time to come so certainly worth reading what they’ve spoken with Billy about over these decades of documents.

Evolution in the Contact Reports

During contact 217 dated 8th May, 1987. Quetzal explains to Billy how Charles Darwins Theory of Evolution is fundamentally wrong:


83. Darwin was a deceiver in relation to the Man-Ape Evolutionary Line Theory because he secretly worked on ape bones and ape skeletons with a filing utensil, in order to adapt them into his claim and false theory and to present it to those scientists at that time who occupied themselves with the evolution of animals and humans.
84. At first, they were completely impressed by Darwin’s “evidence” and spread Darwin’s false claims and deceitful machinations across the globe as correct and as a true sensation.
85. And once they discovered Charles R. Darwin’s fraud, it was already too late to correct everything again; consequently, everything took its course, and the fraudulently created evidence entered into the scientific annals as authenticity; thus, it also spread among the people, and the erroneous teaching was born that the human being is descended from the ape, which is the exact opposite of what corresponds to the truth and correctness, that the ape is descended from the line of the human being.


The story is well-known to me. Through his wrong machinations, Darwin probably created the greatest deception and the greatest lie that a scientist on Earth has ever created. Greater deception and greater lies were probably only created by the Americans, with their made-up first Moon-landing, as well as those through which religions and sects were created.


86. That is correct.

Book: God-delusion and God-delusion insanity

In the Book, 'God-delusion and God-delusion insanity' Billy thoroughly explains to the Earth human of the present time – as the first human ever to do so – what Creation is and how its laws and recommendations work:

Thereby one must take great care that the principle of cause-effect-evolution, in other words, of causality, and how it works, is correctly understood.

Most scientists only know about the evolution of nature, and they do not even always know that correctly, but they are basically on the right path, contrary to the Creationists who totally go astray. It obviously does not appear to be clear to them that everything spiritual and material – therefore all things of all existence in that which is spiritual, physical and conscious – is integrated into evolution. Actually, the following forms of evolution exist:

Forms of Evolution

Creation evolution spirit-energetical evolution of Creation
conscious evolution of the consciousness human life-form
Only the human being evolves by means of the conscious evolution of the consciousness
instinct evolution Life-forms of animals and other creatures
impulse evolution
Adaptation evolution, respectively, assimilation evolution
plant life-forms
energy evolution
Transformation evolution, respectively, conversion evolution
sand, stones, crystals, gasses, liquids, etc.
Compatibility evolution and mutation evolution
bacterium, bacillus, virus
intelligence evolution
(not to be equated with the human beings’ consciousness-evolution)
higher species of animals, such as apes, dolphins, horses, ravens, pigs, goats, parrots, buffalo and other kinds of cattle, bears, camels, donkeys, beasts of prey, elephants, dogs, cats, sheep, and so forth.

The Creation Universal Consciousness is not simply an accumulation of chance and chaos. It is in its laws and recommendations, in the external storage banks and in our conscious memory, just as it is in the subconscious memory and in the countless forms of consciousness, unconsciousness and sub-consciousness, etc. Everywhere, everything is well ordered. Law and regulation and principles prevail.

What use is a discovery to the scientists if they cannot include it in a bigger whole in order to draw right conclusions because they have a completely false picture of the Creation Universal Consciousness? Since the following seven principles of all existence are, for the time being, only explained in the Spiritual Teaching, but are very important in the drawing of conclusions, they shall be named here. Spiritual Teaching, Spirit-Lesson no. 127, Die Sieben Prinzipien aller Existenz (The Seven Principles of All Existence), Sieben Prinzipien der Wahrheit des Lebens im Geistigen, Physischen und Bewussten sind gegeben in aller Existenz (Seven Principles of the Truth of Life in the Spiritual, Physical and Conscious are given in all Existence). Nokodemjon-Henoch

The Seven Principles of All Existence

1. Das erste Prinzip fundiert in der Existenz des allumfassenden Geistigen des schöpferischen, allbelebenden Geistes, im Geistigen, Physischen und Bewussten, und so also in allem Geistigen und Materiellen.

1. The first principle is based in the existence of the all-embracing spirit of the creational, all-enlivening spirit, in that which is spiritual, physical and conscious, and thus in everything spiritual and material.

2. Das zweite Prinzip fundiert in der Gleichheit und Gleichwertigkeit aller Dinge des Geistigen, Physischen und Bewussten, so also alle Dinge sowohl des Geistigen als auch des Materiellen in Gleichheit und Gleichwertigkeit gegeben sind.

2. The second principle is based on the equality and equal value of all things which are spiritual, physical and conscious, thus all things which are spiritual, as well as those which are material, exist in equality and in equal value.

3. Das dritte Prinzip ist die alluniverselle und allexistenzielle Schwingung aller Formen des Geistigen, Physischen und Bewussten, und so also in allem Geistigen und Materiellen.

3. The third principle is the all-universal and all-existential vibration of all forms of that which is spiritual, physical and conscious, and thus in everything spiritual and material.

4. Das vierte Prinzip ist die Zweipoligkeit aller Dinge alles Existenten, und so also die Gegenpoligkeit aller geistigen und materiellen Werte und Faktoren in ihrer Zusammengehörigkeit.

4. The fourth principle is the bipolarity of all things in everything which exists, and thus the existence of opposite poles in all spiritual and material values and factors in its togetherness.

5. Das fünfte Prinzip ist das Gleichmass aller Dinge im Geistigen, Physischen und Bewussten, und so also in allem Geistigen und Materiellen.

5. The fifth principle is the consonance of all things in the spiritual, physical and conscious, and thus in everything spiritual and material.

6. Das sechste Prinzip ist das Gesetz des Zusammenhanges aller in Erscheinung tretenden Vorkommnisse und Geschehen, so also im Geistigen, Physischen und Bewussten, und so also gegeben in allem Geistigen und Materiellen.

6. The sixth principle is the law of the connection of all occurences and events which come about, so, therefore, in that which is spiritual, physical and conscious, and thus given in everything spiritual and material.

7. Das siebente Prinzip ist das der allumfassenden Evolution aller Dinge aller Existenz im Geistigen, Physischen und Bewussten, und so also in allem Geistigen und Materiellen.

7. The seventh principle is that of the all-embracing evolution of all things of all existence in the spiritual, physical and conscious, and thus in everything spiritual and material.

Common misconceptions

List of common misconceptions about the FIGU information by subject
Explanation about the broad subject of why

  • Power struggles and lust for power is characteristic of the human form of life in its course of evolution.[2]
  • Evolution is not a progression from inferior to superior organisms, and it also does not necessarily result in an increase in complexity. A population can evolve to become simpler, having a smaller genome, but biological devolution is a misnomer.
  • Creationists have been disproportionately justified and boosted due to governments usually and generally being allied to them, due to being filled by them.[3]
  • Not all dinosaurs became extinct during the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. Birds evolved from small feathered theropods in the Jurassic, and while most dinosaur lineages were cut short at the end of the Cretaceous, some birds survived. Consequently, dinosaurs are part of the modern fauna.
  • Evolution does not attempt to explain the origin of life or the origin and development of the universe. The theory of evolution deals primarily with changes in successive generations over time after life has already originated. The scientific model concerned with the origin of the first organisms from organic or inorganic molecules is known as abiogenesis, and the prevailing theory for explaining the early development of our universe is the Big Bang model. [show/hide]
  • Humans did not evolve from either of the living species of chimpanzees (common chimpanzees and bonobos). Humans and chimpanzees did, however, evolve from a common ancestor. The most recent common ancestor of humans and the other living chimpanzees lived between 5 and 8 million years ago.
  • Evolution does not "plan" to improve an organism's fitness to survive. The misconception is encouraged as it is common shorthand for biologists to speak of a purpose as a concise form of expression (sometimes called the "metaphor of purpose"); it is less cumbersome to say "Dinosaurs may have evolved feathers for courtship" than "Feathers may have been selected for when they arose as they gave dinosaurs a selective advantage over their non-feathered peers".
  • The longer one looks at history the smaller and shorter it looks. The older an individual gets, especially now with the information technologies we have in this decade, if the individual studies history during that time and combines that reading with Billy Meier cognitions, the shorter and smaller the entire history appears and for exactly what it is for the clarity of what it is, as short and small. It would only ever be under such a cognition of its short rapidly advancing small size that one would then gain the ability to see the other much wider aspects of Billy's story.
  • One of the main tasks of The Mission, FIGU and of Billy Meier was and is still to warn, heads-up, scientists, journalists, politicians etc. the Earth human, about the rapidly approaching time when a conflict with degenerate and depraved humans from space becomes unavoidable.
    Other solar systems have a number of various life forms, and not only human life. That among these human species there are some that have acquired much knowledge, to the extent that they have freed themselves from their environment; they travel through space and occasionally come to Earth. While most are peaceful there is a minority, and thats all it takes, which mean harm.[4]
    The misconception that has unfortunately developed is in an additional task of Billy Meier, that from the outset has been aimed at informing the sects and religions by successfully reaching them somehow, along with the related general underdevelopment of the human consciousness.[5] This then is the reason why the 'Billy Meier Case' has always been laced with a special compound of religious terminology. Which has arguably confused often alienated many an atheist over the years. It has all been aimed at inclusively informing what is the majority, a humanity. There are few other methods of disseminating such a variety of content to such a diversity of individuals all over the world without it coming across as fanatical and or causing panic.[6]
    All along the fact was known that of all the 196 governments, none of them would develop the various cognitions quickly enough to sufficiently inform their citizens about these rapidly approaching events. Essentially leaving the majority in the dark and at the mercy of these wider realities, thinking that we are the only ones, running out into space thinking of money, which being unfair aside, if overcoming this lip in the course of our future is too harsh a transition it may negatively alter the course of the longer term evolution, it may make us paranoid if this transition into the wider realities is not smooth enough, so being informative has been the aim all along.[7]
  • The natural Universal Consciousness law of evolution continues to possess its validity during and for all available time and its never subject to any kind of alterations.[8]
    It doesn't matter how its worded its always still a natural law.
  • Each universe brings forth a universal prophet who is repeatedly materializing again as a human being in order to help the various humankinds speeding up evolution. That’s a normal occurrence.[9]
  • Every form of life is subject to changes in their progressing evolution, subsequently they collect and establish various cognitions and truth.[10]
  • Negative and positive powers always become transformed over time in the balance and in the power of life and in its constant forever evolving consistency.[11]
  • Disharmonic music; A good example of a general misconception about evolution occasionally occurs when talk is about music through the ages. They say: "1970's music is the best, no 1870's is the best... no 1670's is the best". The example tends to be used to illustrate the decay in our values and the gloomy prospect of everything descending into oblivion with a reverse progress is occurring. This is not the correct way to understand it or look at it because its not the way evolution works at all. First of all evolution is a build as well as a roll out. Undersaturation and oversaturation created the music (competition) and the entire collection from all ages is available on recording (diversity), the need for positive and negative complements consumerism beautifully (demand). We could have beautifully harmonic music through all time, but aside consumerism we also have democracy. In north Korea the same music style plays every day, so there is a balance of allowing free markets and allowing free liberty and expression. The main issue for people is that they want us all to be experiencing the same thing, i.e beautiful music, well it has never worked this way. The individuals who worked in the large factories of Europes industrial revolution heard only discordant sounds every day, yet lived during the time designated a great time for beautiful orchestral music, yet most of them were not at liberty to enjoy it. If we look at music sales they have dropped and moved into favour with the low quality production values which is described as bad, but they are the ones who buy it, its economics.
It is also important to appreciate that the majority in the world have to do many depraved things with their time so that the wealthy can enjoy theirs; and bad news and bad music fits well with how they feel about that situation in terms of demand.
Bad News, Fiction, Drama, Entertainment; The same principle applies, as to above, there is always good music and good news happening all the time, it is not rare at all actually if we readjust our interest calibration and block out what we don't like and allow in what we do. Business reveals our interests actually, the interesting thing about it is that we pay more for bad news and pay more for bad quality music, its economics. In terms of evolution we have had all the good news we've had all the good music we're now trying all the bad, were the demand higher to sustain good things indefinitely then those things would dominate the markets and interest landscape. One day theoretically even the science of reality may get a look into popular culture, once we've tried everything else and had a really good entertainment fill.
We must learn to appreciate that we are civilizing neanderthals and depraved former aliens. Only a very small proportion of Earth humanity wants and needs nice things. The problems began in ancient Greece according to Ptaah, where we then began imposing our will and dominating the interests landscape, telling people what they can and cant do, capping the needs people have for depraved things. The ideal would have been to allow free markets to reign but then we have punishment and justice needs so had to punish individuals, but it went too far with torture and capital punishments. The developing way of action is having a secondary army in every nation to ensure the official army doesn't do anything untoward, but this only leads to an all out new problem of the same kind. So what should have happened is that we learnt to tolerate the fact that we're civilizing neanderthals and depraved former aliens and instead gave them, allowed, those needs for depraved things, and we did, that's why we have the situation today with economics, free markets and the extremely wealthy. So tolerate bad news and bad music and accept that we're not going to be able to have nice things globally until the others we share the world with have come around to wanting it. The example is obvious, why do we have religions and science concurrently?, well obviously we only consume what we want to consume and filter out what we don't want to know and there is no way of undermining it, it has to play out, roll out and evolve, the only thing we can do against it is generative things with our time and hope an interest in something different develops.
We want nice things, that is understandable, but not possible at the current time on Earth providing we are being real and realistic to the way it actually is and possible.
  • Human beings who exist in a half-spiritual phase of development cannot be compared with us material human beings because they do not think and act in the manner as we do.[12]
  • Billy must take the precaution to not allow the knowledge of how and at what point in time he will depart from all others unexpectedly and unassumingly from the worldly living area, so that an idol would not be made of him, if the dates would come to be known. Its only allowed to be known that he will again, in around 800 years, be the centre point of this innermost group, as this already existed in earlier times on various occasions and also exists today.[13]
  • All higher level forms which include Arahat Athersata and Petale have Spirit-forms, therefore they also have to further develop themselves quite normally, which thus means they're also subject to a natural evolution.[14]
    The course of evolution belongs to the high and highest forms of life just as much as it does also belong to low and the lowest forms.[15]
    Human beings are the highest.
  • Billy received the recommendation from Sfath that for the sake of his evolution and life's work that he must be a true human being and live for life, as well as for his health and for his welfare, for which reason he recommended, that in every respect, he always exercise the necessary control over himself.
  • The path of evolution is very long and burdensome. The process is marked by many kinds of different external stimuli and influences. However the particularly influential of these external stimuli usually originate in the same kind of form and species of life. The exertion of the same form of life's flexibility in its powers over an individual single form among the same species or form of life, incites the beginning of this very long and burdensome transformation process. The individual form of life under this burdensome exertion is only then able to overcome and control these external influences through living through greater spaces of time, learning from them and establishing philosophies to cope as well as manoeuvre the obstacle, from which understanding and recognition result as well as the timely inevitable balance.[17]
  • The spirit within the human is the bearer of the creative realm.[18]
  • The legendary sword of King Arthur, Caladvwlch (German=Caladvwlch Breton=Kaledvoulc'h Welsh=Caledfwlch Latin=Caliburnus Cornish=Calesvol Old French=Calabrum, Callibourc Church=Excalibur) was real.[19] Excalibur was a light ray-weapon, a “lightning sword“, emitted lightning-like rays, forged on the Isle of Avalon under the guidance and participation of Plejaren Keridwena. She fell in love with Merlin[20] and gave it to him as a gift,[21] who later gave to his pupil[22] King Arthur, who then fought many bloody battles with it. Efforts to regain possession of the sword failed and she angrily[23] ended her secret relationship with Merlin, of which really no one knew anything.[24] It was only after Arthur’s death that the sword was reclaimed by Myrddin and returned to Keridwena who destroyed it[25] after which she left Terra[26] and returned to Erra.[27]
  • The word theory in "the theory of evolution" does not imply scientific doubt regarding its validity; the concepts of theory and hypothesis have specific meanings in a scientific context. While theory in colloquial usage may denote a hunch or conjecture, a scientific theory is a set of principles that explains observable phenomena in natural terms. "Scientific fact and theory are not categorically separable", and evolution is a theory in the same sense as germ theory or the theory of gravitation.
  • A reconstruction of Aegyptopithecus, a primate predating the split between the human and Old World monkey lineages in human evolution
  • Humans and dinosaurs (other than birds) did not coexist. The last of the non-avian dinosaurs died 66 million years ago in the course of the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, whereas the earliest members of genus Homo (humans) evolved between 2.3 and 2.4 million years ago. This places a 63-million-year expanse of time between the last non-bird dinosaurs and the earliest humans. Humans did coexist with woolly mammoths and saber-toothed cats—mammals which are often depicted alongside humans and dinosaurs.
  • Mammals did not evolve from any modern group of reptiles; rather, mammals and reptiles evolved from a common ancestor. Soon after the first reptile-like animals appeared, they split into two branches, the sauropsids and the synapsids. The line leading to mammals (the synapsids) diverged from the line leading to modern reptilian lines (the sauropsids) about 320 million years ago, in the mid-Carboniferous period. Only later (in the late Carboniferous or early Permian) did the modern reptilian groups (lepidosaurs, turtles and crocodiles) diverge. The mammals themselves are the only survivors of the synapsid line.

Further Reading